Brief information

General Information

Official Name: The Republic of Albania
Short Name: AL
Continent: Europe


Calling Code: +355
Capital City: Tirana
Domain: .al


Area(Sqre/KM): 27400 SqKM
Population: About 2877797 as of 2023
Population Density: 105.03
Population By Religion:
No of States: 0
No of Districts: 36


Nationality: Albanians
President: Ilir Rexhep Meta
Prime Minister: Edi Rama
Independance Day: 11/28/1912 12:00:00 AM


Currency: Lek
Latitude: 41.153332
Longitude: 20.168331


Lanugages: Albanian 98.8% (official - derived from Tosk dialect), Greek 0.5%, other 0.6% (including Macedonian, Roma, Vlach, Turkish, Italian, and Serbo-Croatian), unspecified 0.1% (2011 est.)
National Language: Albanian

Intesting facts

Here are some interesting facts about Albania:

  1. Albania is one of the oldest inhabited regions in Europe, with human settlements dating back to the Paleolithic era.

  2. Albania was the only country in Europe to have more Jewish people living there after World War II than before, due to the fact that Albania protected and sheltered Jews during the Holocaust.

  3. Albania is home to the largest and oldest oak forest in the Balkans, known as the Shebenik-Jabllanica National Park.

  4. Mother Teresa, the Nobel Peace Prize-winning humanitarian, was of Albanian descent, born in Skopje (now North Macedonia), but her family was originally from Albania.

  5. Albania has a unique alphabet called the "Albanian alphabet," which has 36 letters and was created in the 15th century.

  6. Albania is known for its delicious cuisine, including dishes like "byrek" (a savory pastry), "tavë kosi" (a baked lamb and yogurt dish), and "qofte" (Albanian meatballs).

  7. Albania has some of the most beautiful and unspoiled beaches in Europe, including the beaches of Saranda and Ksamil.

  8. Albania is also home to several UNESCO World Heritage Sites, including the ancient city of Butrint and the Ottoman-era city of Berat.

  9. Albania is a popular destination for outdoor enthusiasts, with opportunities for hiking, skiing, rafting, and more.

  10. The national symbol of Albania is the double-headed eagle, which appears on the country's flag and coat of arms.

About Albania

Albania is a small country located in southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic and Ionian Seas. It gained independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1912 and became a communist state after World War II. In 1991, the country adopted a multiparty democracy and began the process of transitioning to a market-oriented economy. Albania is a member of the United Nations, NATO, and the World Trade Organization, and has been a candidate for membership in the European Union since 2014. The country is known for its beautiful coastline, rugged mountain landscapes, and rich history and culture.


Here are the top cities in Albania:

  1. Tirana - the capital and largest city of Albania, known for its colorful buildings, lively street life, and cultural attractions like the National Museum of History and the National Gallery of Arts.

  2. Durrës - a coastal city known for its ancient ruins, including a Roman amphitheater and aqueduct, as well as its beautiful beaches.

  3. Vlorë - a coastal city and important port, known for its scenic promenade and historic independence monument.

  4. Shkodër - a historic city in the north of the country, known for its well-preserved Ottoman architecture and the nearby Lake Skadar National Park.

  5. Elbasan - a city located in the center of the country, known for its ancient castle and well-preserved Ottoman bazaar.

  6. Korçë - a city located in the southeast of the country, known for its vibrant cultural scene and historic architecture.

  7. Gjirokastra - a UNESCO World Heritage Site located in the south of the country, known for its well-preserved Ottoman-era houses and castle.

  8. Berat - another UNESCO World Heritage Site, known for its well-preserved Ottoman-era city center, historic castle, and beautiful views of the Osum River.



Albania has a long and complex history that spans several millennia. The region that is now Albania was inhabited by various Illyrian tribes in ancient times, and later became part of the Roman Empire.

During the Middle Ages, Albania was conquered and ruled by various powers, including the Byzantine Empire, Bulgarian Empire, and Serbian Empire. In the 15th century, the Ottoman Empire conquered Albania, and it remained part of the Ottoman Empire for the next several centuries.

In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Albania began to push for independence from the Ottoman Empire. In 1912, Albania declared its independence and became a sovereign state. However, Albania's early years as an independent state were marked by political instability and economic hardship.

During World War II, Albania was occupied by Italy and then Germany. After the war, Albania became a socialist state under the leadership of Enver Hoxha. Hoxha's government was known for its isolationist policies and harsh treatment of political dissidents.

After the fall of communism in Europe in the 1990s, Albania transitioned to a multiparty democracy and began to implement market-oriented economic reforms. However, the country has faced challenges in its efforts to modernize and develop, including political corruption, organized crime, and economic inequality.



Albania is a small country located in southeastern Europe on the Balkan Peninsula. It is bordered by Montenegro to the northwest, Kosovo to the northeast, North Macedonia to the east, and Greece to the south and southeast. To the west, Albania has a coastline along the Adriatic and Ionian Seas.

The landscape of Albania is characterized by rugged mountains and hills, with the highest peak being Mount Korab at 2,764 meters. The country also has several rivers, including the Drin, Mat, and Vjosa, and a number of lakes, such as Lake Ohrid and Lake Shkodra.

Albania has a Mediterranean climate, with hot, dry summers and mild, wet winters. The coastal areas have a more temperate climate than the mountainous regions. The country is known for its beautiful beaches, crystal-clear waters, and stunning natural scenery.


Environment and Weather:

Albania has a Mediterranean climate, with hot, dry summers and mild, wet winters. The coastal areas have a more temperate climate than the mountainous regions. Albania experiences significant temperature variations between its lowlands and highlands. The average temperature in the summer months (June to August) ranges from 28°C to 35°C in the lowlands, while in the mountainous regions, it can be as low as 10°C to 15°C.

The winter months (December to February) are mild, with average temperatures ranging from 5°C to 10°C in the lowlands and below freezing in the mountainous regions. The coastal regions experience more rainfall than the inland areas, with an average of 1,000-1,500 mm per year. Albania's mountainous areas receive more snowfall during the winter months, which can cause transportation disruptions in some areas.



As of 2021, the estimated population of Albania is around 2.9 million. The population is predominantly Albanian, with Albanians making up over 82% of the population. There are also smaller communities of Greeks, Macedonians, and Roma.

The population of Albania is relatively young, with a median age of 31 years. The birth rate in Albania has declined in recent years, resulting in a slowly aging population. The population growth rate is currently estimated to be around 0.3%, and the fertility rate is 1.5 children per woman, which is below the replacement rate.

The majority of the Albanian population resides in urban areas, with Tirana, the capital city, being the largest city with a population of over 800,000. Other major cities include Durres, Vlore, Shkoder, and Elbasan. The population density of Albania is relatively low, with an average of around 105 people per square kilometer.


Art and Culture:

The art and culture of Albania is a unique blend of different cultural influences, reflecting the country's rich history and diversity. Here are some notable aspects of Albanian art and culture:

  1. Folklore: Albanian folklore includes a range of traditional music, dances, and costumes. The most popular dance is the "valle" which is often performed during weddings and other celebrations. Traditional Albanian costumes are also an important part of the country's cultural heritage.

  2. Literature: Albanian literature has a long and rich history dating back to the Middle Ages. Notable authors include Ismail Kadare, who has been nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature, and the poet Naim Frashëri.

  3. Music: Albanian music has a diverse range of styles and influences, including Ottoman, Italian, and Balkan music. Some of the most popular genres include folk music, pop music, and hip hop.

  4. Art: Albanian art has been influenced by different artistic traditions, including Byzantine, Ottoman, and Western European art. Albanian painters such as Ibrahim Kodra and Edi Hila have gained international recognition.

  5. Cuisine: Albanian cuisine is diverse and influenced by neighboring countries such as Greece, Italy, and Turkey. Some popular dishes include "byrek", a savory pastry, and "tave kosi", a yogurt-based dish.

  6. Festivals: Albania has several festivals that celebrate its art and culture, including the National Folk Festival in Gjirokastra, the Tirana International Film Festival, and the Apollonia Festival of Arts.



Albania has made significant progress in education and literacy over the past few decades. According to the World Bank, the adult literacy rate in Albania was 99.2% in 2019. The country has a free and compulsory education system that consists of primary, secondary, and tertiary levels. Primary education lasts for nine years and is mandatory for all children between the ages of six and fourteen. Secondary education consists of two cycles: the lower cycle lasts for three years, and the upper cycle lasts for three years. The tertiary education system includes universities and vocational schools.


Business and Economy:

Albania is a developing country with a market-oriented economy that is transitioning from a state-controlled system to a more market-based system. The country has made significant progress in economic reforms since the early 1990s, but it still faces some challenges.

The Albanian economy relies heavily on the services sector, which accounts for about two-thirds of GDP. The tourism industry has become increasingly important in recent years, with more than 6 million tourists visiting the country in 2019. Agriculture and industry also contribute to the economy, with Albania being a significant producer of minerals, including chrome, copper, and nickel.

Albania has attracted foreign investment in recent years, particularly in the energy and infrastructure sectors. The government has implemented a number of reforms to improve the business environment, including simplifying administrative procedures and reducing bureaucratic barriers. However, corruption remains a significant problem, and Albania ranks poorly in terms of ease of doing business, according to the World Bank.

The Albanian government has also implemented reforms to strengthen public finances and reduce public debt. The country has made progress in reducing poverty, but income inequality remains a challenge, particularly in rural areas.



Agriculture is one of the main sectors of the Albanian economy, providing employment for about 47% of the population. The country has a long history of agriculture, dating back to ancient times. Albania has a suitable climate and fertile soil for growing a variety of crops, including wheat, maize, barley, potatoes, fruits, and vegetables. Some of the major agricultural products in Albania include olives, citrus fruits, grapes, and tobacco.

The agricultural sector in Albania has undergone significant transformations in recent years. The government has implemented various reforms and policies to improve the efficiency of the sector and increase agricultural productivity. As a result, there has been an increase in the use of modern technologies and practices in agriculture, leading to higher yields and better quality products. The country has also experienced an increase in exports of agricultural products, with Italy being the main export destination.


Foods and Fruits:

Albania has a rich culinary tradition, influenced by the country's history and geography. The cuisine is characterized by the use of fresh and locally sourced ingredients, including a variety of fruits and vegetables. Here are some of the popular foods and fruits in Albania:

  1. Tavë kosi: A traditional Albanian dish made with baked lamb and yogurt.

  2. Byrek: A savory pastry made with phyllo dough and filled with meat, cheese, or vegetables.

  3. Fërgesë: A hearty dish made with peppers, tomatoes, and meat, usually served with bread.

  4. Qofte: Albanian meatballs made with beef, lamb, or pork, often served with a side of rice or potatoes.

  5. Baklava: A sweet pastry made with layers of phyllo dough and nuts, often served with honey.

  6. Fruits: Albania has a variety of fruits grown locally, including figs, pomegranates, grapes, and citrus fruits like oranges and lemons.

  7. Olive oil: Albania is known for producing high-quality olive oil, with a rich flavor and aroma.



Albania has made significant progress in the health sector since the fall of communism in the early 1990s. The country has a universal healthcare system that provides free or subsidized healthcare to all citizens, although the quality of care varies depending on the location and availability of resources.

In recent years, Albania has focused on improving its primary healthcare system, with an emphasis on preventative care and reducing the burden of chronic diseases. The country has also invested in modernizing its healthcare infrastructure, including the construction of new hospitals and clinics.


Natural Resources:

Albania is known for its rich and diverse natural resources, which include minerals, forests, water resources, and biodiversity. Some of the major natural resources of Albania are:

  1. Minerals: Albania is rich in minerals such as chromium, copper, nickel, and iron. In fact, Albania has one of the largest chromium reserves in the world, and it is also a major producer of copper and nickel.

  2. Oil and Gas: Albania has significant oil and gas reserves, and the country is working to develop these resources to reduce its dependence on imported energy.

  3. Forests: Albania has a rich forest cover, with more than 25% of its land covered by forests. The forests are an important source of timber and other forest products, as well as a habitat for many species of wildlife.

  4. Water Resources: Albania has a large number of rivers and lakes, which are an important source of water for agriculture, industry, and domestic use.

  5. Biodiversity: Albania is home to a diverse range of flora and fauna, including many rare and endangered species. The country has several protected areas, including national parks and nature reserves, to conserve its biodiversity.


Forest and Biodiversity:

Albania has a diverse range of forests and biodiversity, with around 1/3 of the country covered in forests. The country is home to a range of plant and animal species, some of which are rare or endangered. Some of the most important forested areas in Albania are the Northern and Southern Mountain ranges. The country's forests are home to a variety of mammals such as the brown bear, lynx, and wolf, as well as several species of deer, wild boar, and other animals.

Albania's biodiversity is also enriched by its coastline, which is home to a variety of marine life. The country has several national parks and protected areas, such as the Butrint National Park, Valbona Valley National Park, and the Shebenik-Jabllanice National Park, which aim to preserve the country's natural heritage.


Mountains and Hills:

Albania is a mountainous country, with more than 70% of its land covered by mountains and hills. The Albanian Alps, also known as the Accursed Mountains, are located in the northern part of the country and include several peaks over 2,000 meters high. The highest mountain in Albania is Mount Korab, which stands at 2,764 meters and is located on the border with North Macedonia.

The central part of the country is dominated by the Shkumbin River Valley, which is surrounded by hills and mountains on both sides. The southern part of Albania is characterized by the Albanian Riviera, a stretch of coastline along the Ionian Sea that is known for its stunning beaches, crystal-clear waters, and picturesque villages nestled in the hills.


Rivers and Sea:

Albania has a coastline that stretches along the Adriatic and Ionian Seas for a total of 476 kilometers (296 miles). The Adriatic coastline is about 250 kilometers (155 miles) long and is located in the north-western part of the country, while the Ionian coastline is about 226 kilometers (140 miles) long and is located in the southern part of the country.

The main rivers in Albania are the Drin, the Mat, the Buna, the Shkumbin, and the Vjosa. The Drin River is the longest river in Albania, with a length of 335 kilometers (208 miles). The Vjosa River, on the other hand, is known for its clear waters and is popular for rafting and kayaking.

Albania also has several lakes, including Lake Ohrid, which is shared with North Macedonia, and Lake Shkodra, which is shared with Montenegro. Lake Ohrid is one of the oldest and deepest lakes in Europe, and it is home to several endemic species of flora and fauna. Lake Shkodra is the largest lake in the Balkans and is an important area for bird-watching.


Hospitality and Tourism:

Albania's tourism industry has been growing steadily in recent years, with the country's natural beauty, rich history, and cultural diversity attracting more visitors each year. The hospitality sector has responded to this growth by expanding and improving infrastructure, accommodations, and tourist services.

One of the most popular tourist destinations in Albania is the Albanian Riviera, a stunning stretch of coastline that runs from the city of Vlore in the south to Saranda in the north. The Riviera is famous for its pristine beaches, turquoise waters, and scenic coastal villages. Other popular destinations in Albania include the capital city of Tirana, the historic city of Berat, the ancient city of Butrint, and the stunning Lake Ohrid on the border with North Macedonia.

Albania's hospitality industry has also been expanding to cater to the growing demand from tourists. New hotels, guesthouses, and hostels have been popping up across the country, providing comfortable and affordable accommodation for all types of visitors. In addition, Albania's restaurant scene is flourishing, with a wide range of delicious local and international cuisine on offer.


Top Destinations:

Albania is a country with a rich cultural heritage and natural beauty, making it an ideal destination for travelers. Here are some of the top destinations in Albania:

  1. Tirana: The capital city of Albania, Tirana is a vibrant city with a mix of modern and traditional architecture. It's known for its bustling cafes, bars, and restaurants, as well as its museums and galleries.

  2. Berat: Known as the "City of a Thousand Windows," Berat is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and is famous for its Ottoman-era architecture.

  3. Butrint: An ancient Greek and Roman city located on the southern coast of Albania, Butrint is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and is home to some of the best-preserved ancient ruins in the country.

  4. Saranda: A popular seaside resort town, Saranda is known for its beautiful beaches, crystal-clear waters, and lively nightlife.

  5. Gjirokastra: Another UNESCO World Heritage Site, Gjirokastra is a well-preserved Ottoman-era town with a hilltop fortress and narrow stone streets.

  6. Lake Ohrid: Shared with North Macedonia, Lake Ohrid is one of the oldest and deepest lakes in Europe and is known for its crystal-clear waters and stunning natural beauty.

  7. Valbona Valley National Park: Located in the northern part of the country, Valbona Valley National Park is home to some of the most stunning mountain scenery in Albania and is a popular destination for hiking and camping.

  8. Ksamil: A small village located on the southern coast of Albania, Ksamil is known for its beautiful beaches and clear blue waters.

  9. Shkoder: Located in the north of the country, Shkoder is one of the oldest cities in Albania and is home to many historical sites, including the Rozafa Castle and the Shkoder Cathedral.

  10. Dhermi: A popular beach town located on the southwestern coast of Albania, Dhermi is known for its crystal-clear waters and pristine beaches.


Top Universities:

Albania has a number of universities, both public and private, offering degrees in various fields. Some of the top universities in Albania include:

  1. University of Tirana: The largest and oldest university in Albania, founded in 1957. It has faculties in a wide range of subjects, including law, economics, engineering, medicine, and social sciences.

  2. Polytechnic University of Tirana: Specializes in engineering, technology and applied sciences.

  3. Epoka University: A private university founded in 2007 with a focus on business, economics, and engineering.

  4. Agricultural University of Tirana: Specializes in agriculture and veterinary sciences.

  5. Aleksander Moisiu University of Durres: A public university with faculties in a variety of subjects, including education, economics, engineering, and law.

  6. Fan Noli University: A public university in Korça that offers degrees in a variety of subjects, including education, economics, engineering, and social sciences.

  7. European University of Tirana: A private university offering degrees in law, economics, and business.

  8. Luarasi University: A private university in Tirana that offers degrees in business, law, and social sciences.

  9. Ismail Qemali University: A public university in Vlora with faculties in education, economics, engineering, law, and social sciences.

  10. Fama College: A private college in Tirana that offers degrees in business, law, and hospitality management.


National Days:

Albania celebrates several national days throughout the year, including:

  1. Independence Day - November 28th: This day marks the country's declaration of independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1912. It is the most important national holiday in Albania, and is celebrated with parades, speeches, and cultural events.

  2. Flag Day - November 28th: This day is also celebrated as Flag Day, in honor of the Albanian flag, which was adopted on November 28th, 1912.

  3. Liberation Day - November 29th: This day commemorates the liberation of the city of Tirana from German occupation during World War II.

  4. Summer Day - March 14th: This day marks the beginning of summer in Albania, and is celebrated with traditional food, music, and dancing.

  5. Mother Teresa Day - October 19th: This day is dedicated to the memory of Mother Teresa, who was born in Skopje (now North Macedonia), but was of Albanian descent.

  6. National Youth Day - December 8th: This day celebrates the youth of Albania, and is marked with cultural events, concerts, and other activities.


Popular Leaders:

Here are some popular leaders of Albania:

  1. Ismail Qemali: He was the founder and first head of state of Albania. He is considered the father of Albanian independence and played a key role in the country's struggle for independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1912.

  2. Enver Hoxha: He was the leader of the Albanian Communist Party from 1941 until his death in 1985. He ruled Albania with an iron fist, implementing a repressive regime that isolated Albania from the rest of the world.

  3. Sali Berisha: He served as President of Albania from 1992 to 1997 and as Prime Minister from 2005 to 2013. He is credited with introducing economic reforms that helped modernize the country.

  4. Edi Rama: He has been the Prime Minister of Albania since 2013. He is a painter and former basketball player who has sought to modernize Albania and strengthen its ties with the West.

  5. Mother Teresa: Although she was born in Skopje (now North Macedonia), Mother Teresa is one of Albania's most famous and beloved figures. She was a Catholic nun who devoted her life to helping the poor and sick, and was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1979.



Albania has a rich history of scientists and inventors who have made significant contributions to various fields. Here are some notable scientists from Albania:

  1. Faik Konica: He was a prominent journalist, scholar, and politician. Konica was also a linguist and an expert in Balkan studies.

  2. Eqrem Çabej: He was a prominent linguist who made significant contributions to the study of Albanian language and its dialects.

  3. Kristo Floqi: He was a mathematician and a physicist who contributed to the development of mathematical analysis and taught at the University of Vienna.

  4. Aleksander Moisiu: He was a biologist and one of the founders of modern Albanian biology.

  5. Martin Gjoka: He was a physicist and an astronomer who made significant contributions to the study of celestial mechanics.

  6. Pandi Geço: He was an engineer who invented a system for automatic control of water supply that is still used today.

  7. Teodor Laço: He was a mathematician who made significant contributions to the study of algebraic geometry.

  8. Dritan Mustafa: He is a computer scientist who is known for his contributions to the field of software engineering and distributed systems.


Writers and Poets:

Albania has a rich literary history, with many notable writers and poets who have contributed to the country's cultural heritage. Here are a few of the most well-known:

  1. Ismail Kadare: Born in 1936, Kadare is one of Albania's most prominent and internationally recognized writers. He has written over 20 novels and numerous short stories, essays, and plays, and has been translated into more than 40 languages. Kadare's work often explores themes of power, dictatorship, and authoritarianism, and has been compared to the works of Kafka and Orwell.

  2. Migjeni: The pen name of Millosh Gjergj Nikolla, Migjeni is widely considered one of Albania's greatest poets. He lived from 1911 to 1938 and wrote in a modernist style that broke with traditional Albanian poetic forms. His work often dealt with themes of poverty, suffering, and the struggle for social justice.

  3. Naim Frashëri: Born in 1846, Frashëri is one of Albania's most celebrated poets of the Romantic period. He wrote in both Albanian and Turkish and was also a prominent figure in the Albanian national movement. His poetry often dealt with themes of freedom, patriotism, and the natural beauty of Albania.

  4. Dritëro Agolli: Agolli was a prolific writer and poet who lived from 1931 to 2017. He was known for his wit and humor, and his work often dealt with social and political issues. Agolli also wrote plays, screenplays, and children's books, and was a leading figure in Albanian cultural life for many decades.

  5. Faik Konica: Born in 1875, Konica was a journalist, writer, and political figure who played a key role in the Albanian national movement. He spent much of his life in exile in Europe and the United States, where he worked as a journalist and political commentator. Konica was also a prolific writer, and his work included novels, essays, and memoirs.