Antigua and Barbuda

Brief information

General Information

Official Name: Antigua and Barbuda
Short Name: AG
Continent: North America


Calling Code: +1-268
Capital City: St. John's
Domain: .ag


Area(Sqre/KM): 440 SqKM
Population: About 97929 as of 2023
Population Density: 222.57
Population By Religion:


Nationality: Antiguans and Barbudans
President: Sir Rodney Errey Lawrence Williams
Prime Minister: Gaston Alfonso Browne
Independance Day: 11/1/1981 12:00:00 AM


Currency: Dollar
Latitude: 17.060816
Longitude: -61.796428


Lanugages: English (official), local dialects
National Language: English

Intesting facts

Here are some interesting facts about Antigua and Barbuda:

  1. Antigua and Barbuda is located in the eastern Caribbean, and is a part of the Lesser Antilles.

  2. The country consists of two main islands, Antigua and Barbuda, and several smaller islands.

  3. The official language of Antigua and Barbuda is English.

  4. Antigua and Barbuda gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1981.

  5. The island of Antigua was named by Christopher Columbus in 1493, during his second voyage to the Americas.

  6. The island of Barbuda is home to one of the largest colonies of frigate birds in the world.

  7. Antigua and Barbuda is known for its beautiful beaches, crystal-clear waters, and warm climate, making it a popular tourist destination.

  8. The capital city of Antigua and Barbuda is St. John's, which is located on the island of Antigua.

  9. Cricket is the national sport of Antigua and Barbuda, and the country has produced several world-class cricket players.

  10. Antigua and Barbuda is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the United Nations, and the Organization of American States.

About Antigua and Barbuda

Antigua and Barbuda is a small island nation located in the Caribbean Sea. It consists of two main islands, Antigua and Barbuda, as well as several smaller islands. The country gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1981 and is now a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. The capital and largest city is St. John's, located on the island of Antigua. The country's economy is largely driven by tourism, offshore banking, and financial services. Its population is estimated to be around 100,000 people.


Antigua and Barbuda is a small island nation in the Caribbean, and it has only a few major cities and towns. St. John's is the capital and largest city of Antigua and Barbuda. Other significant urban areas include All Saints, Liberta, Bolans, and Parham.



Antigua and Barbuda have a rich and complex history, dating back thousands of years to the time of the indigenous Arawak and Carib peoples. Christopher Columbus arrived in Antigua in 1493, and the islands became an important colonial center for the British Empire in the 17th and 18th centuries.

The islands were at the center of the Atlantic slave trade, with thousands of Africans brought to Antigua and Barbuda to work on the sugar plantations. The country gained independence from Britain in 1981, and has since developed into a stable and prosperous democracy. The legacy of slavery and colonialism is still present in the country today, but Antigua and Barbuda has made significant strides in recent years to address these issues and build a more inclusive and equitable society.



Antigua and Barbuda is a small island nation located in the Eastern Caribbean Sea, southeast of Puerto Rico. The country consists of two main islands, Antigua and Barbuda, and several smaller islands. Antigua is the largest of the islands, with an area of 281 square kilometers, while Barbuda covers an area of 161 square kilometers. The country has a total land area of 442 square kilometers.

The islands of Antigua and Barbuda are mostly low-lying, with some hills and volcanic peaks. The highest point in the country is Mount Obama, formerly known as Boggy Peak, which stands at 402 meters (1,319 feet) on the island of Antigua. The country has a tropical climate with relatively constant temperatures throughout the year, averaging around 27°C (81°F). The islands are vulnerable to hurricanes, particularly from August to October.


Environment and Weather:

Antigua and Barbuda have a tropical climate with two main seasons: a wet season from May to November and a dry season from December to April. The average temperature ranges between 25°C to 30°C (77°F to 86°F) all year round. The country is located in the hurricane belt, and hurricanes and tropical storms can occur during the wet season. Antigua and Barbuda also face environmental issues, such as deforestation, soil erosion, and damage to coral reefs due to tourism development and pollution. The government has taken steps to promote sustainable tourism and protect the environment through initiatives such as the establishment of national parks and marine reserves.



According to the World Bank, the estimated population of Antigua and Barbuda as of 2021 is approximately 97,000 people. The population is predominantly of African descent, with a smaller percentage of people of mixed ethnicity, European descent, and others. The official language is English. The majority of the population is Christian, with the largest denomination being Anglican, followed by other Protestant denominations, Roman Catholicism, and others.


Art and Culture:

Antigua and Barbuda has a rich cultural heritage, influenced by African, European, and Caribbean traditions. Music and dance are an important part of the country's culture, with calypso, reggae, and soca being popular styles. Carnival is also a major event, with celebrations taking place in August.

Antigua and Barbuda is also home to several cultural landmarks and museums, such as the Museum of Antigua and Barbuda, which showcases the country's history and culture, and the Museum of Marine Art, which houses a collection of maritime-themed artwork. The country is also known for its traditional handicrafts, such as pottery, weaving, and basketry, which are often made using natural materials.

Literature is another important aspect of Antiguan and Barbudan culture, with writers such as Jamaica Kincaid, A. R. A. Penfold, and Joanne Hillhouse gaining international recognition. The country also hosts several literary events, such as the Antigua and Barbuda Literary Festival, which attracts writers and readers from around the world.

Antigua and Barbuda is known for its vibrant cuisine, which features a blend of African, European, and Caribbean flavors. Seafood is a staple, with dishes such as conch, lobster, and red snapper being popular. Other traditional dishes include saltfish and ackee, rice and peas, and fungi, a cornmeal-based dish similar to polenta. The country is also famous for its rum, which is produced by several local distilleries.



Education in Antigua and Barbuda is mandatory for children aged between 5 and 16. The literacy rate in Antigua and Barbuda is relatively high, with an estimated literacy rate of over 90%. There are both private and public schools in the country, and education is free for primary and secondary school students.

The country has a few tertiary institutions, including the University of the West Indies Open Campus, Antigua and Barbuda Hospitality Training Institute, and the Antigua State College. The government of Antigua and Barbuda has made significant efforts in recent years to improve the quality of education in the country, including investing in school infrastructure and teacher training programs.


Business and Economy:

Antigua and Barbuda has a small, open economy that is highly dependent on tourism and services. The country's main exports are tourism services, transportation, and government services. Agriculture and manufacturing sectors contribute minimally to the country's GDP.

The government has been implementing economic reforms to encourage foreign investment and reduce dependence on tourism, which has been negatively affected by natural disasters and the COVID-19 pandemic. The country has also implemented citizenship-by-investment programs to attract foreign investment.

Antigua and Barbuda is a member of the Eastern Caribbean Currency Union and the Caribbean Community (CARICOM). The Eastern Caribbean Central Bank, headquartered in St. Kitts and Nevis, serves as the central bank for Antigua and Barbuda and other member countries.



Antigua and Barbuda's agricultural sector plays a small but important role in the country's economy. The country's fertile soil and favorable climate make it suitable for the cultivation of a variety of crops such as sugarcane, vegetables, fruits, and livestock. However, the sector has been declining over the years due to competition from other sectors such as tourism and finance.

In recent years, there has been a push to revive the agricultural sector, with a focus on diversification and sustainable agriculture. The government has implemented various initiatives and policies to support the growth of the sector, such as providing grants and loans to farmers, promoting the use of technology and modern agricultural practices, and establishing a food safety and certification system to improve the quality of agricultural products.

Some of the key agricultural products of Antigua and Barbuda include sugarcane, bananas, coconuts, vegetables, and livestock such as goats and poultry. The country also has a small fishing industry, with seafood such as lobster, conch, and snapper being popular exports. Overall, the agricultural sector continues to play a significant role in the country's food security and rural development.


Foods and Fruits:

Antigua and Barbuda has a rich culinary tradition with a blend of African, Caribbean, and European influences. Some of the most popular foods include seafood dishes like conch fritters, lobster, and red snapper, as well as rice and peas, plantains, and goat curry.

One of the most popular fruits in Antigua and Barbuda is the Antigua Black Pineapple, which is known for its sweetness and juiciness. Other popular fruits include mangoes, guavas, papayas, passionfruit, and coconuts.

Local beverages include rum, which is distilled on the islands, and mauby, a traditional drink made from the bark of the mauby tree. Antigua and Barbuda also have their own beer, called Wadadli, which is named after the indigenous word for the islands.



The healthcare system of Antigua and Barbuda has been gradually improving over the years. The country has a public healthcare system that provides free medical care to citizens and residents, and a private healthcare system that offers medical services to those who can afford them.

There are three public hospitals in Antigua and Barbuda - the Holberton Hospital, the Mount St. John's Medical Centre, and the Hanna Thomas Hospital. These hospitals provide a range of services, including emergency care, surgery, obstetrics, and gynecology.

The country also has several private clinics and medical centers that provide specialized medical care. These facilities are often used by tourists who require medical attention while on vacation.

Antigua and Barbuda has made progress in reducing infant mortality rates and increasing life expectancy. However, there are still some health challenges facing the country, including high rates of chronic diseases such as diabetes and hypertension.


Natural Resources:

Antigua and Barbuda is a small island nation with limited natural resources. The country has a relatively small land area and limited mineral resources. The main natural resource in Antigua and Barbuda is its natural beauty, which attracts tourists from around the world. The country has pristine beaches, crystal-clear waters, and lush vegetation, which provide opportunities for eco-tourism and sustainable development.

The country's marine resources are also significant, including a diverse range of marine life and coral reefs. The government has placed great emphasis on the conservation of these resources through the creation of marine protected areas and other conservation initiatives.

Antigua and Barbuda also has some agricultural resources, with small-scale farming activities producing crops such as bananas, pineapples, and citrus fruits. Fishing is also an important economic activity, with several fishing communities along the coast engaged in small-scale commercial fishing.

The country has limited mineral resources, with small deposits of limestone and clay used for construction materials. However, Antigua and Barbuda's geographic location has made it a hub for international trade, with a well-developed shipping industry and international airport. The country's economy is heavily reliant on tourism and financial services, which account for a significant portion of its GDP.


Forest and Biodiversity:

Antigua and Barbuda have a limited amount of forest and biodiversity due to its small size and the impact of human activities. The islands are located in the Leeward Islands of the Caribbean and have a tropical maritime climate.

The islands have limited forest cover, with most of the land being used for agriculture or urban development. The main forested areas are found in the interior of Antigua and in the hilly terrain of Barbuda. These forests are mainly composed of dry broadleaf woodland and scrub, with trees such as wild tamarind, acacia, and cactus. The islands are also home to several species of birds, including the Antigua blackbird, the frigatebird, and the pelican.

The surrounding waters of Antigua and Barbuda have significant marine biodiversity, with coral reefs, seagrass beds, and mangroves supporting a variety of marine life, such as fish, turtles, and crabs. However, these ecosystems face threats from pollution, overfishing, and climate change.


Mountains and Hills:

Antigua and Barbuda are relatively flat islands with few hills or mountains. The highest point in Antigua is Mount Obama, also known as Boggy Peak, which stands at 402 meters (1,319 feet) above sea level. In contrast, Barbuda is a low-lying island, with its highest elevation at only 44 meters (144 feet) above sea level. The landscape of the islands is characterized by coral limestone formations, sandy beaches, and coastal mangrove swamps. The islands are also home to several small rivers and streams, including the Christian Valley, Grays, and Fitches Creek on Antigua.


Rivers and Sea:

Antigua and Barbuda are two islands located in the eastern Caribbean Sea. The country has many beautiful beaches and clear waters that make it a popular tourist destination. The islands do not have any major rivers, but they are surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea.

The surrounding seas provide a wide range of marine life, including various species of fish, turtles, and coral reefs. The seas are also an important resource for the country's fishing industry, which provides jobs and income for many Antiguans and Barbudans.

The country is also home to several small uninhabited islands, including Great Bird Island, Redonda Island, and Barbuda Island. These islands are popular spots for boating, fishing, and diving.


Hospitality and Tourism:

Antigua and Barbuda is a popular tourist destination, known for its beautiful beaches, crystal-clear waters, and historic sites. The country's tourism industry is a major contributor to its economy, and many visitors come to enjoy the warm weather and friendly people.

There are numerous hotels, resorts, and other accommodations throughout the islands, and visitors can enjoy a variety of activities such as swimming, snorkeling, scuba diving, sailing, and deep-sea fishing. The country is also known for its annual carnival, which takes place in late July and early August and features colorful costumes, music, and dancing.

In addition to tourism, Antigua and Barbuda has a growing offshore financial services industry. The country has attracted a number of international businesses and investors due to its low tax rates and favorable business climate.


Top Destinations:

Antigua and Barbuda is a small island nation located in the Caribbean Sea. It is known for its beautiful beaches, crystal clear waters, and tropical climate. Here are some of the top destinations to visit in Antigua and Barbuda:

  1. Nelson's Dockyard: This is a historic site located in English Harbour, Antigua. It was once a British naval base and is now a marina and tourist attraction. Visitors can explore the restored buildings, visit the museum, and enjoy the views of the harbor.

  2. Shirley Heights: This is a hilltop lookout in Antigua that offers stunning views of English Harbour and the surrounding area. Visitors can also enjoy the weekly Sunday evening party, which features live music and local food and drink.

  3. Devil's Bridge: This natural rock formation on the east coast of Antigua is a popular tourist attraction. Visitors can watch as waves crash against the rocks and spray high into the air.

  4. Half Moon Bay: This is one of Antigua's most beautiful beaches, with crystal clear waters and soft white sand. Visitors can swim, snorkel, or simply relax on the beach and soak up the sun.

  5. Barbuda: This island is located north of Antigua and is known for its unspoiled beaches and natural beauty. Visitors can take a day trip to explore the island and enjoy its peaceful surroundings.

  6. Betty's Hope: This historic site is located in Antigua and was once a sugar plantation. Visitors can explore the ruins of the plantation, learn about its history, and enjoy the scenic surroundings.

  7. Darkwood Beach: This is another beautiful beach in Antigua, with calm waters and soft sand. Visitors can swim, snorkel, or simply relax and enjoy the scenery.

  8. Antigua Market: Located in the capital city of St. John's, the Antigua Market is a popular shopping destination for tourists. Visitors can browse the stalls for local crafts, souvenirs, and fresh produce.

  9. Antigua Rainforest Canopy Tour: For those looking for an adventure, the Antigua Rainforest Canopy Tour offers ziplining and treetop obstacle courses in the island's lush rainforest.

  10. Jolly Harbour: This is a marina and residential community in Antigua that offers a variety of water sports, dining options, and shopping. Visitors can rent boats or jet skis, go snorkeling, or simply enjoy the views of the harbor.


Top Universities:

Antigua and Barbuda is a small island nation in the Caribbean and does not have any universities that are ranked globally. However, there are a few institutions of higher learning in Antigua and Barbuda that offer undergraduate and graduate programs. Here are some of the top universities in Antigua and Barbuda:

  1. University of Health Sciences Antigua: This is a private medical school in St. John's, Antigua and Barbuda, that offers a range of medical degrees.

  2. American University of Antigua College of Medicine: This is another private medical school in Antigua that offers a four-year MD degree.

  3. Antigua State College: This is a public institution that offers associate degrees and professional certification programs in various fields.

  4. University of the West Indies Open Campus: This is a regional institution with a campus in Antigua that offers a range of undergraduate and graduate programs.

  5. University of Health and Allied Sciences (UHAS): This is a public institution located in the town of Ho in Ghana, but it has a partnership with the Antigua State College to offer distance learning programs in Antigua and Barbuda.


National Days:

Antigua and Barbuda has several national days and holidays that are celebrated throughout the year. Some of the notable national days include:

  1. Independence Day: Celebrated on November 1st, this day marks the country's independence from Britain in 1981.

  2. Carnival: Held annually in late July or early August, this is a colorful celebration of Caribbean culture with music, dancing, parades, and food.

  3. Antigua Sailing Week: This is an international sailing regatta that takes place in late April or early May each year. It attracts sailors and visitors from all over the world.

  4. Labour Day: Observed on the first Monday in May, this day honors the contribution of workers to the country's development.

  5. Christmas Day and Boxing Day: December 25th and 26th are public holidays in Antigua and Barbuda, celebrated with feasts, music, and family gatherings.

  6. Heroes Day: Observed on the second Monday in December, this day honors the country's national heroes and their contributions to the development of Antigua and Barbuda.


Popular Leaders:

Antigua and Barbuda have had several popular leaders throughout their history. Here are some of them:

  1. Vere Cornwall Bird - Known as the father of the nation, he was the first Prime Minister of Antigua and Barbuda and led the country to independence in 1981.

  2. Lester Bryant Bird - Son of Vere Bird, he also served as Prime Minister of Antigua and Barbuda from 1994 to 2004 and oversaw the country's economic growth.

  3. Baldwin Spencer - He served as Prime Minister of Antigua and Barbuda from 2004 to 2014 and was known for his efforts to combat corruption and improve transparency in government.

  4. Gaston Browne - He is the current Prime Minister of Antigua and Barbuda, having taken office in 2014. He has focused on promoting economic growth and development, particularly through investment in tourism and infrastructure.

  5. Louise Lake-Tack - She was the first female Governor-General of Antigua and Barbuda, serving from 2007 to 2014.



Antigua and Barbuda is a small island nation in the Caribbean, and while there have been notable Antiguan and Barbudan figures in various fields, the country does not have a large number of scientists who have gained international recognition.

One of the most well-known Antiguan scientists is Dr. William Arthur O'Connor, who was born in Antigua in 1922 and went on to become a renowned chemist in the United States. He was a professor of chemistry at the University of California, Berkeley, and made significant contributions to the field of physical organic chemistry. Dr. O'Connor was also an advocate for increasing diversity in the sciences and was involved in efforts to promote greater representation of women and people of color in chemistry and other STEM fields.

Another notable figure is Dr. Novelle Richards, a physician who served as Antigua and Barbuda's Minister of Health, Wellness, and the Environment from 2014 to 2018. Dr. Richards played a key role in the country's efforts to combat the Zika virus and other public health challenges, and he also advocated for greater investment in renewable energy and other sustainable development initiatives.


Writers and Poets:

Antigua and Barbuda has a rich literary tradition, with a number of notable writers and poets. Here are some of the most prominent:

  1. Jamaica Kincaid - born in Antigua, Kincaid is a celebrated novelist and essayist. Her works include "Annie John," "A Small Place," and "Lucy."

  2. Joanne C. Hillhouse - born in Antigua, Hillhouse is a writer and editor. Her works include the novel "Oh Gad!" and the poetry collection "The Boy from Willow Bend."

  3. Althea Prince - born in Antigua, Prince is a writer and educator. Her works include the novel "Loving This Man" and the poetry collection "Fruit of the Lemon."

  4. O.R. Maurice - born in Antigua, Maurice was a playwright and actor. He was best known for his play "The Last Straw," which was set during the 1960 Antiguan labor riots.

  5. Dorbrene O'Marde - born in Antigua, O'Marde is a poet and performer. His works include the poetry collection "Faces Around My Table" and the spoken word album "Fussin' and Cussin'."