Brief information

General Information

Official Name: The Kingdom of Bahrain
Short Name: BH
Continent: Asia


Calling Code: +973
Capital City: Manama
Domain: .bh


Area(Sqre/KM): 760 SqKM
Population: About 1701575 as of 2023
Population Density: 2238.91
Population By Religion:


Nationality: Bahrainis


Currency: Dinar
Latitude: 25.930414
Longitude: 50.637772


Lanugages: Arabic (official), English, Farsi, Urdu

Intesting facts

Here are some interesting facts about Bahrain:

  1. Bahrain is an archipelago made up of 33 islands in the Persian Gulf.

  2. The official language of Bahrain is Arabic, but English is widely spoken and understood.

  3. Bahrain is known for its pearl industry, which dates back to ancient times.

  4. Bahrain is one of the few countries in the Middle East where alcohol is legal and widely available.

  5. Bahrain is home to the Bahrain International Circuit, which hosts the Bahrain Grand Prix, a Formula One race.

  6. The Bahrain World Trade Center is a unique skyscraper that features three wind turbines between its two towers.

  7. Bahrain is home to the Tree of Life, a 400-year-old tree that stands alone in the desert and has no apparent source of water.

  8. Bahrain is one of the most liberal countries in the Gulf region, with a relatively open society and a thriving arts and cultural scene.

  9. Bahrain is home to the Bahrain National Museum, which showcases the country's rich cultural heritage and history.

  10. Bahrain is known for its cuisine, which features a mix of Arabic, Indian, and Persian influences, and includes dishes like machboos (a spiced rice dish with meat or fish) and halwa (a sweet dessert made from wheat flour, sugar, and oil).

About Bahrain

Bahrain is a small island country located in the Persian Gulf. It consists of a group of 33 islands, the largest of which is Bahrain Island. Bahrain is an archipelago located east of Saudi Arabia, with Qatar to the south-east, and Iran to the north. The country has a rich history, dating back to ancient civilizations and has been ruled by various dynasties and empires throughout history. Today, Bahrain is a modern and developed nation with a diverse economy and a vibrant culture.


Bahrain is a small island country in the Persian Gulf, and as such, it has only a few major cities. The top cities of Bahrain include:

  1. Manama: The capital and largest city of Bahrain, Manama is located on the northeastern coast of the island. It is the country's financial and commercial hub and is home to a number of important government institutions, cultural attractions, and shopping districts.

  2. Muharraq: The second-largest city in Bahrain, Muharraq is located on the northern coast of the island. It is the former capital of Bahrain and is known for its traditional architecture, historic sites, and lively souq.

  3. Riffa: Located in the central part of the island, Riffa is one of the largest residential areas in Bahrain. It is known for its luxury villas, upscale shopping centers, and golf courses.

  4. Isa Town: Located in the north-central part of the island, Isa Town is known for its traditional Bahraini architecture and is home to a number of important cultural and historical sites, including the Bahrain Fort and the Al Fateh Grand Mosque.

  5. Hamad Town: Located in the western part of the island, Hamad Town is a rapidly growing residential area that is home to a large number of expatriates. It is known for its modern shopping centers, restaurants, and entertainment venues.



Bahrain has a rich and diverse history that spans more than 5,000 years. The earliest known civilization in Bahrain was the Dilmun civilization, which flourished between 3000 BCE and 2000 BCE. The Dilmun people were known for their advanced maritime trade, and their civilization played a key role in the trade routes between Mesopotamia, the Indus Valley, and ancient Egypt.

Over the centuries, Bahrain was ruled by various empires and dynasties, including the Assyrians, the Babylonians, the Persians, and the Arabs. In the 16th century, Bahrain came under the rule of the Portuguese, who built fortifications and established a trading post on the island.

In the 18th century, Bahrain became a center for pearl diving and trade, and the Al Khalifa family, a Sunni Muslim dynasty from the Arabian Peninsula, established a foothold on the island. The Al Khalifa family continues to rule Bahrain to this day.

In the 20th century, Bahrain became a British protectorate and gained independence in 1971. Since then, the country has undergone rapid economic and social development, transforming from a pearl-based economy to a modern, diversified economy with a thriving financial services sector, tourism industry, and manufacturing sector.



Bahrain is an archipelago of 33 islands located in the Arabian Gulf, east of Saudi Arabia and west of Qatar. The largest island, which is also the main island, is called Bahrain Island. The country has a total land area of approximately 780 square kilometers, making it one of the smallest countries in the Middle East. Bahrain is mostly flat, with the highest point being the Jebel Dukhan hill, which stands at 134 meters. The country has a coastline that stretches for 161 kilometers and is known for its warm waters, sandy beaches, and coral reefs. The climate in Bahrain is arid, with hot summers and mild winters. The country also experiences occasional dust storms, known locally as "shamals."


Environment and Weather:

Bahrain has a hot and humid climate for most of the year, with temperatures often exceeding 40°C (104°F) during the summer months from June to September. The country is also prone to dust storms, which can reduce visibility and cause respiratory problems.

Bahrain's environment has been impacted by rapid urbanization and industrialization, leading to issues such as air pollution, water scarcity, and waste management. Efforts are being made to address these concerns, including the construction of new wastewater treatment plants and the implementation of renewable energy projects.

In recent years, Bahrain has also experienced occasional flooding during periods of heavy rain, highlighting the need for better infrastructure and drainage systems.



Bahrain has a population of approximately 1.7 million people as of 2021, with a majority of the population being expatriates. The population is predominantly Arab, with a significant number of South Asian and Western expatriates. Bahrain is a diverse society with a mix of Sunni and Shia Muslims, as well as small communities of Christians, Hindus, and Buddhists. The official language is Arabic, but English is widely spoken and used in business and education. The population is known for its hospitality and warmth towards visitors.


Art and Culture:

Bahrain has a rich culture that dates back over 4,000 years. The country's location in the Persian Gulf has made it a crossroads for trade and cultural exchange throughout history. The art and culture of Bahrain are heavily influenced by Islamic traditions and Arabic customs, as well as the country's ancient history.

Bahrain has a vibrant arts scene, with many museums, galleries, and cultural centers showcasing the country's history and contemporary art. The Bahrain National Museum, for example, features exhibits on the country's ancient history, Islamic art, and contemporary art. The Al Riwaq Art Space is a contemporary art gallery that hosts exhibitions and events featuring local and international artists.

Music and dance are also important parts of Bahraini culture. Traditional music in Bahrain is characterized by the use of instruments like the oud (a stringed instrument), the qanun (a type of zither), and the tabla (a percussion instrument). The traditional dance of Bahrain is called the "Arda," which is a type of sword dance performed by men.

Bahrain is also known for its traditional handicrafts, such as pottery, weaving, and basketry. These crafts have been passed down through generations and continue to be practiced today.

Cuisine is an important part of Bahraini culture, with a mix of Middle Eastern, Indian, and Persian influences. Popular dishes include machboos (a spicy rice dish), ghoozi (roasted lamb stuffed with rice, onions, and spices), and balaleet (a sweet vermicelli pudding). Bahrain is also known for its dates, which are grown locally and used in many dishes and desserts.



Bahrain has a well-developed education system with high literacy rates. Education is compulsory for children aged 6 to 14, and the government provides free education for Bahraini citizens up to university level. The literacy rate in Bahrain is estimated to be around 98%, which is one of the highest rates in the Middle East.

Bahrain has several universities, both public and private, which offer a wide range of academic programs. The University of Bahrain is the largest public university in the country, with over 20,000 students enrolled in undergraduate and graduate programs. Other notable universities include the Arabian Gulf University, Bahrain Polytechnic, and the Royal University for Women.

The government has invested heavily in the education sector, and Bahrain is known for its innovative education initiatives. The country has implemented a number of reforms aimed at improving the quality of education, including the introduction of modern teaching methods and the integration of technology into the classroom. Bahrain is also home to several international schools, catering to the expatriate community.


Business and Economy:

Bahrain has a diversified economy, with a significant focus on the financial and petroleum industries. The country is heavily dependent on oil and gas revenues, which account for a significant portion of the country's GDP. However, Bahrain has been actively working to diversify its economy and reduce its dependence on oil, with a growing focus on the financial sector, tourism, and manufacturing.

Bahrain is home to a number of free trade zones, including the Bahrain International Airport Free Zone, the Bahrain Logistics Zone, and the Bahrain International Investment Park. These zones offer tax exemptions and other incentives to attract foreign investment and promote business growth.

Bahrain has a well-developed banking sector and is home to a number of international financial institutions. The Bahrain Bourse, the country's stock exchange, is also a major contributor to the economy.

Bahrain has a relatively liberal economic policy, with few restrictions on foreign investment and a business-friendly regulatory environment. The government has also taken steps to promote small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), offering financial assistance and other incentives to support their growth.



Bahrain is a small island country in the Persian Gulf with limited arable land and water resources, which limits its ability to support significant agricultural activity. However, agriculture has played a role in Bahrain's economy historically. The country's traditional crops include dates, figs, pomegranates, and various types of citrus fruits, which are mostly grown in the northern region of the country. Bahrain also has a small fishing industry, with Bahraini fishermen catching a variety of fish and shrimp in the Persian Gulf. However, the country's agricultural sector is relatively small compared to other sectors of the economy, such as oil and gas, finance, and tourism.


Foods and Fruits:

Bahrain has a rich culinary culture influenced by the country's long history of trade and migration. The traditional cuisine of Bahrain is a mix of Arabic, Persian, Indian, and East Asian flavors. Some popular Bahraini dishes include:

  1. Machboos: It is Bahrain's national dish made with rice, spices, and meat (usually chicken, lamb, or fish).

  2. Harees: It is a porridge-like dish made with ground wheat and meat, traditionally served during Ramadan.

  3. Gahwa: It is Arabic coffee served with dates, a traditional welcoming drink in Bahraini culture.

  4. Samboosa: It is a fried or baked pastry filled with spiced meat or vegetables.

  5. Luqaimat: It is a sweet dumpling served with date syrup and sesame seeds.



Bahrain has a well-developed health sector with modern facilities and trained medical professionals. The government provides free or low-cost healthcare to all citizens and residents of the country through a comprehensive public healthcare system. The Ministry of Health oversees the healthcare system, which includes public hospitals, health centers, and clinics.

Bahrain has made significant progress in healthcare over the years, and the country has one of the highest life expectancies in the world. The country also has a low infant mortality rate and a high literacy rate, which are indicators of the overall health of the population.


Natural Resources:

Bahrain is a small island country in the Persian Gulf and is not rich in natural resources. However, the country has developed its economy based on its strategic location, a highly skilled workforce, and an open economy that welcomes foreign investment.

Some of the natural resources that Bahrain possesses include:

  1. Oil and Gas: Bahrain has limited reserves of oil and gas, and the sector accounts for a significant portion of the country's economy.

  2. Pearls: Bahrain was once the largest producer of pearls in the world, and the industry played a significant role in the country's economy. However, the industry declined in the 20th century due to the discovery of oil and the introduction of cultured pearls.

  3. Fish: Bahrain's location in the Persian Gulf makes it an excellent location for fishing, and the country has a rich history of fishing and pearl diving.

  4. Agriculture: Bahrain's arid climate makes agriculture challenging, but the country produces fruits and vegetables such as dates, figs, and pomegranates, which are consumed locally and exported. The country also has some livestock, including camels and goats.

  5. Limestone: Bahrain has large deposits of limestone, which is used for construction and other purposes.


Forest and Biodiversity:

Bahrain is an island nation in the Arabian Gulf with a dry and arid climate, which makes it difficult for vegetation to grow. Therefore, the country does not have any significant forests, and its biodiversity is limited. Despite this, the Bahraini government has taken steps to preserve the country's natural habitats and protect its endangered species. The country has several wildlife reserves, including the Al Areen Wildlife Park and Reserve, which covers 8 square kilometers and is home to several species of birds, mammals, and reptiles. The Hawar Islands, located off the coast of Bahrain, are a critical habitat for several species of seabirds and marine life, including dugongs and sea turtles. The country has also implemented measures to protect its coral reefs and seagrass beds, which are important for maintaining the health of the marine ecosystem.


Mountains and Hills:

Bahrain is a small island nation in the Persian Gulf, and as such, it has no significant mountains or hills. The country is generally flat and arid, with its highest point, the Jabal al Dukhan, standing at only 134 meters (440 feet) above sea level. The Jabal al Dukhan is also known as the "Mountain of Smoke" because of the haze that often surrounds it.


Rivers and Sea:

Bahrain is an archipelago in the Persian Gulf, consisting of 33 islands. It is located east of Saudi Arabia and west of Qatar. Bahrain is known for its warm climate and shallow waters, making it a popular destination for beachgoers and water sports enthusiasts. The country does not have any rivers, but it has a long coastline that stretches for 161 kilometers. The Persian Gulf is rich in marine life, including fish, shrimp, and crab, which are important to the local economy. The country also has several man-made canals, including the Bahrain Canal, which connects the Persian Gulf to the capital city, Manama.


Hospitality and Tourism:

Bahrain is a popular tourist destination in the Middle East. It has a rich history and culture, as well as stunning beaches, modern architecture, and world-class shopping and dining.

The capital city of Manama is the center of tourism in Bahrain, with attractions such as the Bahrain National Museum, the Bahrain Fort, and the Bab Al Bahrain market. Other popular tourist spots in Bahrain include the Al Fateh Grand Mosque, the Bahrain International Circuit, the Tree of Life, and the Arad Fort.

Bahrain is also known for its luxury hotels and resorts, such as the Four Seasons Hotel Bahrain Bay, the Ritz-Carlton Bahrain, and the Sofitel Bahrain Zallaq Thalassa Sea & Spa. The country also has many shopping malls, including the City Centre Bahrain, Seef Mall, and Bahrain Mall.

Tourists can also enjoy a variety of outdoor activities in Bahrain, such as water sports, desert safaris, and island-hopping tours. The country's warm climate and clear waters make it an ideal destination for scuba diving and snorkeling, and there are many companies that offer guided tours and rental equipment.


Top Destinations:

Bahrain is a small island country in the Persian Gulf that is becoming increasingly popular as a tourist destination due to its rich history and culture, modern infrastructure, and picturesque landscapes. Some of the top destinations in Bahrain are:

  1. Bahrain National Museum: This museum showcases Bahrain's rich history and culture and includes exhibits on everything from ancient artifacts to traditional handicrafts.

  2. Al-Fateh Mosque: One of the largest mosques in the world, Al-Fateh Mosque is a must-visit for those interested in Islamic architecture and culture.

  3. Bahrain Fort: Also known as Qal'at al-Bahrain, this ancient fort has been designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site and is a testament to the country's rich history.

  4. Tree of Life: This solitary tree is believed to be over 400 years old and is a symbol of Bahrain's resilience in the face of the harsh desert environment.

  5. Manama Souq: This bustling marketplace is a great place to experience Bahraini culture and pick up some souvenirs.

  6. Al Areen Wildlife Park: Spread over 8 square kilometers, this wildlife park is home to a variety of animals, including Arabian oryx, gazelles, and cheetahs.

  7. Riffa Fort: This 19th-century fort is located in the historic city of Riffa and offers stunning views of the surrounding area.

  8. Amwaj Islands: These man-made islands are home to luxury resorts, private beaches, and a variety of water sports and activities.

  9. Al Dar Islands: Located just off the coast of Bahrain, these islands are a popular spot for swimming, snorkeling, and other water-based activities.

  10. Bahrain International Circuit: This state-of-the-art Formula 1 racetrack hosts an annual Grand Prix race and is a popular destination for motorsports fans.


Top Universities:

Bahrain has a number of top universities, both private and public, that offer a range of academic programs to students. Here are some of the top universities in Bahrain:

  1. University of Bahrain: Established in 1986, the University of Bahrain is the largest public university in the country. It offers a range of undergraduate and graduate programs in various fields including engineering, business, science, medicine, and humanities.

  2. Arabian Gulf University: Established in 1984, the Arabian Gulf University is a public university that offers undergraduate and graduate programs in a range of fields including medicine, dentistry, engineering, law, and social sciences. It also offers postgraduate programs and conducts research in various fields.

  3. Bahrain Polytechnic: Established in 2008, Bahrain Polytechnic is a government-owned tertiary education institution that offers vocational and technical programs in various fields including business, engineering, and information technology.

  4. Ahlia University: Ahlia University is a private university established in 2001. It offers undergraduate and graduate programs in various fields including business, engineering, law, and health sciences.

  5. RCSI Bahrain: The Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (RCSI) has a campus in Bahrain that offers undergraduate and postgraduate programs in medicine, nursing, and healthcare management. It was established in 2004.

  6. Applied Science University: Established in 2004, the Applied Science University is a private university that offers undergraduate and graduate programs in various fields including engineering, business, and IT. It also offers vocational training programs and conducts research in various fields.


National Days:

Bahrain has several national days and celebrations, some of which are:

  1. National Day: December 16th is celebrated as Bahrain's National Day, marking the country's independence from British rule in 1971.

  2. Accession Day: December 17th is Accession Day, which marks the day when the current king of Bahrain, Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa, took the throne in 1999.

  3. Labour Day: May 1st is recognized as Labour Day or May Day in Bahrain, which is a public holiday that honors workers and their contributions to the country's development.

  4. Eid al-Fitr: This is a religious holiday that marks the end of Ramadan, the month of fasting for Muslims, and is celebrated with feasting and prayer.

  5. Eid al-Adha: This is another religious holiday celebrated by Muslims, which honors the willingness of Prophet Ibrahim to sacrifice his son, and is marked with prayer, feasting, and the exchange of gifts.

  6. Islamic New Year: The Islamic New Year is celebrated on the first day of Muharram, the first month of the Islamic calendar, and is marked by prayer and reflection.

  7. Ashura: This is a Shia Muslim holiday that commemorates the martyrdom of Hussein ibn Ali, the grandson of the Prophet Muhammad, and is marked with mourning and religious rituals.


Popular Leaders:

Bahrain is a constitutional monarchy and its current king is Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa, who has been in power since 1999. King Hamad is known for his efforts towards modernizing the country, promoting economic growth and development, and improving human rights. He has also been instrumental in promoting Bahrain as a regional financial center and a hub for Islamic finance.

One of the most popular leaders in Bahrain's history was Isa bin Salman Al Khalifa, who was the king of Bahrain from 1961 to 1999. He is credited with leading Bahrain to independence from the British and modernizing the country's infrastructure and economy. However, his rule was also marked by authoritarianism and suppression of political opposition.

Another popular leader in Bahrain's history was Sheikh Abdullah bin Khalid Al Khalifa, who was the Prime Minister of Bahrain from 1971 to 2020, making him the longest-serving prime minister in the world at the time of his death. He was known for his efforts to promote economic development and modernization in Bahrain, as well as for his diplomatic initiatives to promote peace and stability in the region. However, he was also criticized for his role in suppressing political dissent and for his alleged involvement in corruption.



Bahrain has a relatively small scientific community, but it has produced several notable scientists and researchers. Here are some examples:

  1. Dr. Khalid Al-Khalifa: A renowned computer scientist and a professor at the University of Bahrain, Dr. Khalifa has made significant contributions to the fields of artificial intelligence, machine learning, and natural language processing.

  2. Dr. Shaikha Al Maskari: A senior researcher at the Bahrain Centre for Strategic, International, and Energy Studies (DERASAT), Dr. Al Maskari has published several papers on sustainable development, renewable energy, and environmental policy.

  3. Dr. Fatima Al-Balooshi: An associate professor of chemistry at the University of Bahrain, Dr. Al-Balooshi is known for her work in the field of environmental chemistry and has conducted extensive research on the impact of pollution on the marine environment.

  4. Dr. Abdulnabi Al-Tajer: A professor of medicine and the former president of the Arabian Gulf University, Dr. Al-Tajer has made significant contributions to the field of diabetes research, particularly in the area of gestational diabetes.

  5. Dr. Tariq Madani: A professor of physics at the University of Bahrain, Dr. Madani has conducted research in the areas of material science, condensed matter physics, and nanotechnology. He has also published several papers on the applications of nanotechnology in energy storage and conversion.


Writers and Poets:

Bahrain has a rich literary history, and it has produced many prominent writers and poets. Here are a few notable ones:

  1. Qassim Haddad: Born in 1948, Qassim Haddad is a well-known Bahraini poet and writer. He has written over 30 books of poetry, fiction, and literary criticism. Haddad's work often explores the human condition and reflects his interest in philosophy and mysticism.

  2. Ali Al Saeed: Ali Al Saeed is a Bahraini writer and journalist. He has published several books, including a collection of short stories called "The Kingdom of Bahrain." Al Saeed's writing often deals with themes of identity, exile, and social justice.

  3. Maryam Al-Khawaja: Maryam Al-Khawaja is a human rights activist and writer. She is the co-director of the Gulf Center for Human Rights and has written extensively on human rights issues in Bahrain and the wider Middle East.

  4. Hussain Al-Mozany: Hussain Al-Mozany is a Bahraini poet and journalist. He has written several books of poetry and has also worked as an editor and writer for various Bahraini newspapers.

  5. Ali Isa: Ali Isa is a Bahraini author and academic. He has written several books on Bahraini history and politics, including "Bahrain: A Reinterpretation" and "Political Life in Bahrain."