Introduction to the country Belgium
Fig.1 - Belgium

Brief information

General Information

Official Name: The Kingdom of Belgium
Short Name: BE
Continent: Europe


Calling Code: +32
Capital City: Brussels
Domain: .be


Area(Sqre/KM): 30280 SqKM
Population: About 11589623 as of 2023
Population Density: 382.75
Population By Religion:


Nationality: Belgians


Currency: Euro
Latitude: 50.503887
Longitude: 4.469936


Lanugages: Dutch (official) 60%, French (official) 40%, German (official) less than 1%, legally bilingual (Dutch and French)

Intesting facts

Here are some interesting facts about Belgium:

  1. Belgium has three official languages: Dutch, French, and German.
  2. It is famous for its chocolate, waffles, and beer.
  3. Belgium is home to the European Union's headquarters and the NATO headquarters.
  4. The famous comic character Tintin was created by a Belgian cartoonist named Hergé.
  5. The Atomium, a landmark in Brussels, was built for the 1958 World Fair.
  6. Belgium has more castles per square kilometer than any other country in the world.
  7. The world's first recorded death by a car accident happened in Belgium in 1899.
  8. The saxophone was invented in Belgium by Adolphe Sax in the 1840s.
  9. Belgium has the oldest shopping arcade in Europe, the Galeries Royales Saint-Hubert in Brussels, dating back to 1847.
  10. Belgium is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary democracy.

About Belgium

Belgium is a country located in Western Europe. It shares its borders with France, Germany, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands. Belgium has a population of around 11 million people and its capital city is Brussels, which is also the headquarters of the European Union. Belgium is known for its rich cultural heritage, diverse language communities, and famous chocolates, waffles, and beers. It has a constitutional monarchy and is divided into three regions: Flanders in the north, Wallonia in the south, and Brussels in the center.


Some of the top cities in Belgium include:

  1. Brussels - the capital city and the political center of the European Union.
  2. Antwerp - known for its diamond district and cultural attractions such as the Museum aan de Stroom.
  3. Bruges - a historic city with picturesque canals and a well-preserved medieval town center.
  4. Ghent - a vibrant university city with a rich cultural and historical heritage.
  5. Leuven - a university town with a charming old city center and renowned breweries.
  6. Mechelen - a lesser-known city with a wealth of cultural attractions, including UNESCO-listed Belfries.
  7. Liege - a multicultural city with a rich industrial heritage and a thriving cultural scene.
  8. Namur - the capital city of the Wallonia region, located at the confluence of the Sambre and Meuse rivers.



The history of Belgium dates back to the Roman Empire when the region was inhabited by a mix of Celtic and Germanic tribes. In the Middle Ages, the region of Flanders became a center of trade and culture, with cities like Bruges and Ghent prospering.

In the 16th century, the region became a battleground for European powers, including Spain, the Netherlands, and France. After the Belgian Revolution in 1830, Belgium became an independent country and established a constitutional monarchy.

During World War I and World War II, Belgium was occupied by Germany, and the country suffered significant damage and loss of life. However, after the wars, Belgium became a founding member of the European Union and played an important role in the formation of modern Europe.

In more recent times, Belgium has faced tensions between its Flemish and French-speaking populations, as well as with its Muslim immigrant community. Nevertheless, it remains a prosperous and influential country in Europe.



Belgium is a small, densely populated country located in Western Europe. It is bordered by the Netherlands to the north, Germany to the east, Luxembourg to the southeast, France to the southwest, and the North Sea to the northwest.

The geography of Belgium is characterized by a flat coastal plain in the northwest, a central plateau, and the densely populated, industrialized Meuse valley in the east. The central plateau is hilly and forested, with the Ardennes forest in the southeast. The country has a moderate maritime climate, with cool summers and mild winters.

The Scheldt, Meuse, and Yser rivers are the most important rivers in Belgium, and they provide the country with access to the North Sea and other international waterways. The Port of Antwerp, located on the Scheldt river, is one of the largest ports in the world and an important gateway for European trade.


Environment and Weather:

Belgium has a temperate maritime climate, which means that it experiences mild winters and cool summers. However, the climate can vary depending on the region, with the coastal areas experiencing more precipitation and the inland areas having a more continental climate. Belgium is also known for its frequent rainfall throughout the year.

In terms of environmental issues, Belgium has made significant efforts to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions and transition towards more sustainable energy sources. The country has implemented various policies and initiatives to promote renewable energy, energy efficiency, and sustainable transportation. However, like many other developed countries, Belgium still faces challenges such as air pollution, waste management, and biodiversity loss.



Belgium has a population of approximately 11.7 million people, making it the 82nd most populous country in the world. The population is predominantly urban, with over 97% of the population living in urban areas. The largest cities in Belgium are Brussels (the capital), Antwerp, Ghent, and Charleroi. The country has a relatively high population density, with an average of 376 people per square kilometer. The official languages of Belgium are Dutch, French, and German, and the majority of the population speaks either Dutch or French.


Art and Culture:

Belgium has a rich and diverse cultural heritage influenced by its unique history and location at the crossroads of European culture. Belgium is famous for its fine arts, particularly the Flemish Primitives and the Baroque painters, including Peter Paul Rubens. The country has produced world-renowned artists such as René Magritte, Paul Delvaux, and James Ensor. Belgium is also home to some of the world's most famous comics, including The Adventures of Tintin and The Smurfs.

Belgium is known for its architectural heritage, including the Gothic and Baroque cathedrals and churches, castles, and historic town centers. The UNESCO World Heritage Site of Bruges, also known as the "Venice of the North," is a popular tourist destination with its picturesque canals and medieval architecture.

Belgium is also renowned for its cuisine and is considered a food lover's paradise. Belgian chocolate is famous around the world, as is Belgian beer, with over 1,500 varieties produced in the country. Other notable Belgian culinary specialties include waffles, fries, mussels, and the national dish, "stoemp," a mashed potato dish often served with sausages or bacon.

Belgium has a vibrant music scene, with a long tradition of classical music as well as popular music genres such as jazz, rock, and electronic music. The country has produced many famous musicians, including Jacques Brel, Stromae, and Toots Thielemans.



Belarus has a well-developed education system, with a literacy rate of 99.8%. Education is compulsory for children aged 6 to 16, and the system is divided into primary, secondary, and higher education.

Primary education lasts for four years, while secondary education is divided into two stages. The first stage lasts for five years, and the second stage lasts for two years. After secondary education, students have the option to continue their education at a higher education institution.

Belarus has a number of universities, including Belarusian State University, which was founded in 1921 and is the oldest and largest university in the country. Other notable universities include Belarusian State Technological University, Belarusian State Medical University, and Belarusian State University of Informatics and Radioelectronics.

The government of Belarus places a high priority on education and invests heavily in it. Education is free for all citizens, and there are a number of programs in place to support students who wish to study abroad. As a result, Belarus has a high level of educational attainment, with a large percentage of the population holding university degrees.


Business and Economy:

Belgium has a well-developed education system and a high literacy rate. Education is compulsory from the ages of 6 to 18, and the system is divided into three levels: primary, secondary, and tertiary. Primary education lasts for six years, followed by six years of secondary education, which is divided into two cycles. The first cycle covers general education and the second cycle is more specialized and prepares students for higher education or vocational training.

Belgium is home to several top universities, including the Université catholique de Louvain, the Vrije Universiteit Brussel, the University of Ghent, and the University of Liège. The country has a strong focus on research and development, particularly in the areas of life sciences, engineering, and ICT. The Belgian government invests heavily in research and development, with funding provided by the federal government, regional governments, and the European Union.

The literacy rate in Belgium is very high, with nearly 100% of the population being able to read and write. The country has a strong tradition of literature, with famous Belgian authors including Georges Simenon, Marguerite Yourcenar, and Hugo Claus. The Flemish and Walloon regions each have their own distinct literary traditions, with works produced in Dutch, French, and German.



Belgium's agricultural sector is relatively small, accounting for just a small fraction of the country's GDP. However, the country's fertile soil and moderate climate make it well-suited for growing a variety of crops, including cereals, sugar beets, potatoes, fruits, and vegetables.

Belgium is also known for its production of high-quality chocolate, beer, and waffles. The country has a long history of beer brewing, with over 1,500 varieties of beer produced in Belgium. Chocolate is also a major industry in Belgium, with many artisanal chocolatiers producing high-quality chocolates using traditional methods.

In recent years, there has been a growing interest in organic farming in Belgium, with an increasing number of farmers adopting organic methods. The government has also implemented policies to support sustainable agriculture, such as subsidies for farmers who adopt environmentally-friendly practices.


Foods and Fruits:

Belgium is well known for its cuisine and is famous for its waffles, chocolate, fries, and beer. Belgian chocolate is made with high-quality ingredients and is considered one of the best in the world. Belgian waffles are fluffy, sweet, and delicious and can be topped with fruit, whipped cream, or chocolate sauce. Belgian fries, also known as frites, are crispy on the outside and fluffy on the inside and are often served with mayonnaise. Belgium is also home to many famous beers, including Trappist beers, Lambic beers, and Witbier.

In terms of fruits, Belgium is known for its strawberries, which are sweet and juicy and are grown in greenhouses. Apples, pears, and cherries are also popular fruits in Belgium, and are often used in pies, tarts, and other desserts.



Belgium has a well-developed and comprehensive healthcare system that is funded by a combination of government and private insurance. The country has one of the highest ratios of physicians per capita in the world and is known for its high-quality healthcare services.

The healthcare system in Belgium is divided into three regions: the Flemish Region, the Walloon Region, and the Brussels-Capital Region. Each region has its own healthcare policies, and the federal government sets the overall healthcare framework.

Belgium has a public healthcare system that provides universal coverage to all citizens and legal residents. The system is funded by social security contributions and taxes, and patients are required to pay a small fee for most medical services.

In addition to the public healthcare system, Belgium also has a robust private healthcare sector that is used by approximately one-third of the population. Private health insurance is available and is often used to cover the costs of services that are not fully covered by the public system.


Natural Resources:

Belgium has limited natural resources, and most of its raw materials have to be imported. However, it has a significant reserve of high-quality fertile soil, which supports the country's agricultural sector. Some of the other natural resources of Belgium include:

  1. Iron Ore: Belgium has small reserves of iron ore, which are mostly found in the south of the country.

  2. Coal: Belgium has a significant amount of coal reserves, which were once used to fuel the country's industrial growth. However, the coal mines have now been closed down.

  3. Natural Gas: Belgium has limited reserves of natural gas, which are mainly located offshore in the North Sea.

  4. Limestone: Belgium has abundant reserves of high-quality limestone, which is used in the cement industry.

  5. Timber: Belgium has a small but growing forestry industry, and the country's forests are a valuable natural resource.

  6. Arable land: Belgium has a significant amount of arable land, which is used for the cultivation of crops such as wheat, potatoes, sugar beet, and barley.


Forest and Biodiversity:

Belgium has a relatively small forest cover, with forests accounting for around 22% of the country's total land area. The majority of Belgium's forests are deciduous and are home to a wide range of plant and animal species, including oak, beech, pine, and spruce trees. The Ardennes Forest, located in the southeast of Belgium, is the largest forested region in the country, covering around 10% of its total land area.

Belgium's forests and woodlands provide important habitats for a diverse range of animal species, including deer, wild boar, foxes, badgers, and squirrels. The country is also home to a variety of bird species, such as woodpeckers, owls, and eagles.

Despite its relatively small forest cover, Belgium has a long history of forestry management, and many of its forests are sustainably managed to ensure their conservation and continued use. The country also has a number of nature reserves and protected areas, which help to preserve its rich biodiversity.


Mountains and Hills:

Belgium is a relatively flat country, and it does not have any major mountain ranges. However, there are several hills and small mountains in the country, including:

  1. Signal de Botrange: With a height of 694 meters, Signal de Botrange is the highest point in Belgium. It is located in the High Fens region of eastern Belgium.

  2. Baraque Michel: This hill in the Hautes Fagnes region of eastern Belgium has an elevation of 674 meters.

  3. Kemmelberg: Located in the West Flanders region of Belgium, Kemmelberg is a small hill with a height of 156 meters. It is known for its historical significance and is home to several war memorials.

  4. Sint-Pietersberg: This hill is located in the eastern part of Belgium, near the city of Maastricht. It has an elevation of 171 meters and is a popular destination for hikers and nature enthusiasts.

  5. Vaalserberg: This small mountain is located on the border of Belgium, the Netherlands, and Germany. With a height of 322 meters, it is the highest point in the Netherlands.

  6. Hoge Venen: This region in eastern Belgium is known for its moors and heathlands. It is a popular destination for hiking and birdwatching.


Rivers and Sea:

Belgium has several significant rivers and seas that are important to its geography and economy. Here are some of them:

  1. Scheldt River: This is the longest river in Belgium, stretching for 350 km. It runs from France through Belgium and into the Netherlands, eventually emptying into the North Sea. The river is an important shipping route, and its estuary is a major industrial center.

  2. Meuse River: The Meuse River flows from France into Belgium, passing through the cities of Namur and Liege before flowing into the Netherlands. The river is an important source of hydroelectric power and is used for irrigation and shipping.

  3. Yser River: The Yser River is a small river that flows through the province of West Flanders in Belgium, eventually emptying into the North Sea. The river played an important role in World War I, as the Battle of the Yser was fought along its banks.

  4. North Sea: Belgium has a small coastline along the North Sea, which is an important fishing ground and tourist destination. The ports of Zeebrugge and Ostend are important transport hubs for goods and passengers.

  5. Albert Canal: The Albert Canal connects the cities of Antwerp and Liege, allowing ships to bypass the winding and often congested Scheldt River. The canal is a major shipping route for goods, especially petroleum products.


Hospitality and Tourism:

Belgium is a popular tourist destination, attracting millions of visitors every year. The country's rich history, diverse culture, beautiful architecture, and delicious cuisine make it an ideal place for tourism.

Belgium's top tourist destinations include Brussels, the capital city, which is known for its stunning architecture, beautiful parks, and excellent museums. Other popular destinations include Bruges, a medieval city with canals and cobbled streets, Ghent, a charming city with beautiful architecture and a lively cultural scene, and Antwerp, a vibrant city with a rich history, excellent restaurants, and world-class shopping.

Belgium is also known for its delicious cuisine, including waffles, chocolate, beer, and fries. Visitors can enjoy local specialties at street markets, cafes, and restaurants throughout the country.

Tourists can also explore the country's natural beauty by visiting its many parks, nature reserves, and forests. The Ardennes region, located in the southeast of the country, offers stunning scenery, hiking and biking trails, and outdoor activities like kayaking and rock climbing.

Belgium is also famous for its festivals and events, such as the Tomorrowland music festival, the Brussels Flower Carpet, and the Carnaval de Binche, a colorful carnival with traditional costumes and music.


Top Destinations:

Belgium has several popular tourist destinations that offer a variety of attractions, including historic landmarks, cultural centers, and natural beauty. Some of the top destinations in Belgium are:

  1. Brussels: The capital of Belgium is famous for its grand architecture, historic landmarks, and delicious cuisine. The main attractions include the Grand Place, Atomium, Manneken Pis, and the Royal Palace of Brussels.

  2. Bruges: This historic city is known for its well-preserved medieval architecture, charming canals, and picturesque streets. The main attractions include the Markt Square, Belfry Tower, and the Church of Our Lady.

  3. Ghent: Located in the Flemish region, Ghent is another historic city with stunning medieval architecture and a vibrant cultural scene. The main attractions include the Gravensteen Castle, Saint Bavo's Cathedral, and the Ghent Altarpiece.

  4. Antwerp: The second-largest city in Belgium is known for its diamond trade, fashion, and cultural heritage. The main attractions include the Antwerp Zoo, the Cathedral of Our Lady, and the Museum aan de Stroom.

  5. Waterloo: This small town is famous for the Battle of Waterloo, where Napoleon Bonaparte was defeated in 1815. Visitors can explore the battlefield and the Wellington Museum.

  6. Ardennes: The Ardennes is a picturesque region in southeastern Belgium that offers stunning natural beauty, including forests, rivers, and rolling hills. It is popular for outdoor activities such as hiking, cycling, and kayaking.

  7. Leuven: This university town is known for its stunning Gothic architecture, beer culture, and vibrant nightlife. The main attractions include the Town Hall, the Saint Peter's Church, and the Stella Artois brewery.

  8. Ostend: Located on the North Sea coast, Ostend is a popular seaside resort town with beautiful beaches, a lively promenade, and an exciting cultural scene. The main attractions include the Mu.ZEE art museum, the Fort Napoleon, and the Wellington Racetrack.

  9. Mechelen: This charming town is located between Brussels and Antwerp and is known for its historic landmarks, such as the Saint Rumbold's Tower, the Palace of Margaret of Austria, and the Toy Museum.


Top Universities:

Belgium is home to several top universities, many of which are ranked among the best in Europe and the world. Here are some of the top universities in Belgium:

  1. KU Leuven: Located in the historic city of Leuven, KU Leuven is the largest and oldest university in Belgium. It is consistently ranked among the top 100 universities in the world and is particularly well-known for its research in the fields of biomedical science, engineering, and humanities.

  2. Ghent University: Ghent University is one of the largest and most renowned universities in Belgium. It has a strong focus on interdisciplinary research and offers a wide range of undergraduate and graduate programs in fields such as medicine, law, engineering, and social sciences.

  3. Université catholique de Louvain (UCLouvain): Founded in 1425, UCLouvain is one of the oldest universities in Europe. It has a strong reputation in the fields of philosophy, law, and economics, and is particularly well-known for its research in the life sciences.

  4. Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB): Located in the heart of Brussels, VUB is a modern, international university with a focus on innovation and research. It offers a wide range of programs in fields such as medicine, engineering, social sciences, and humanities.

  5. Université libre de Bruxelles (ULB): ULB is a French-speaking university located in Brussels. It is known for its research in the social sciences, humanities, and natural sciences, and offers a wide range of undergraduate and graduate programs.


National Days:

Belgium has several national days that are celebrated with great enthusiasm and national pride. Here are some of the most important national days in Belgium:

  1. Belgian National Day: Belgian National Day, also known as the "Day of the Belgian Dynasty", is celebrated every year on July 21st. This day commemorates the ascension of King Leopold I to the throne in 1831 and the establishment of the Belgian monarchy.

  2. Flemish Community Day: Flemish Community Day is celebrated on July 11th every year. This day commemorates the Battle of the Golden Spurs in 1302, which was a key moment in the history of Flanders and is considered to be the birth of the Flemish nation.

  3. French Community Day: French Community Day is celebrated on September 27th every year. This day celebrates the French-speaking community of Belgium and their cultural heritage.

  4. German Community Day: German Community Day is celebrated on November 15th every year. This day commemorates the German-speaking community of Belgium and their cultural heritage.

  5. Europe Day: Europe Day is celebrated on May 9th every year to mark the anniversary of the Schuman Declaration, which was a key moment in the establishment of the European Union.


Popular Leaders:

Belgium is a federal parliamentary representative democratic monarchy, with the King of the Belgians as the ceremonial head of state, and the Prime Minister as the head of government. Here are some of the popular leaders who have played significant roles in the country's history:

  1. King Leopold I - the first King of the Belgians who was instrumental in the establishment of Belgium as an independent country.

  2. King Leopold II - known for his expansion of the Belgian Congo and the atrocities committed there during his reign.

  3. Paul-Henri Spaak - one of the founding fathers of the European Union and former Prime Minister of Belgium.

  4. Jean-Luc Dehaene - former Prime Minister of Belgium who played a key role in the negotiation of the Maastricht Treaty and the creation of the euro.

  5. Charles Michel - former Prime Minister of Belgium who served from 2014 to 2019 and played a significant role in the negotiations of Brexit.

  6. Guy Verhofstadt - former Prime Minister of Belgium who was a strong advocate for European integration and played a key role in the creation of the European Constitution.

  7. Elio Di Rupo - former Prime Minister of Belgium and the first openly gay head of government in modern European history.

  8. Alexander De Croo - current Prime Minister of Belgium who assumed office in October 2020.



Belgium has produced several notable scientists who have made significant contributions to various fields. Here are some of the most famous scientists from Belgium:

  1. Georges Lemaître: Lemaître was a Belgian priest and mathematician who proposed the theory of the expansion of the universe. He is also known as the "father of the Big Bang theory" and his work laid the foundations of modern cosmology.

  2. Adolphe Quetelet: Quetelet was a Belgian mathematician, statistician, and astronomer. He is known for his work in developing the concept of the "body mass index" (BMI), which is still used today as a measure of body fat.

  3. Paul Janssen: Janssen was a Belgian pharmacologist and entrepreneur who founded Janssen Pharmaceutica, which became one of the largest pharmaceutical companies in the world. He is credited with developing several important drugs, including the first antipsychotic medication.

  4. Édouard van Beneden: van Beneden was a Belgian cytologist who discovered the process of meiosis, which is the cell division that results in the formation of gametes (eggs and sperm) in sexually reproducing organisms.

  5. Jan Baptista van Helmont: van Helmont was a Belgian chemist and physician who is known for his work on the nature of gases. He is credited with discovering several new gases, including carbon dioxide, and he was the first to use the word "gas" to describe these substances.


Writers and Poets:

Belgium has a rich literary history, with many notable writers and poets. Here are some of them:

  1. Georges Simenon: Born in Liège in 1903, Simenon is best known for his detective novels featuring the character of Inspector Maigret.

  2. Maurice Maeterlinck: Born in Ghent in 1862, Maeterlinck won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1911. He is known for his plays and essays.

  3. Hugo Claus: Born in Bruges in 1929, Claus is considered one of the most important Flemish writers of the 20th century. His work includes poetry, novels, and plays.

  4. Emile Verhaeren: Born in Sint-Amands in 1855, Verhaeren was a poet who wrote in both French and Flemish. He was a member of the symbolist movement.

  5. Guido Gezelle: Born in Bruges in 1830, Gezelle is known for his poetry, which often deals with nature and the Flemish language.

  6. Flemish Primitives: The Flemish Primitives were a group of painters who worked in the 15th and 16th centuries, including Jan van Eyck, Rogier van der Weyden, and Hans Memling. They are known for their meticulous attention to detail and use of oil paint.

  7. Marguerite Yourcenar: Although born in Brussels in 1903, Yourcenar wrote primarily in French. She is best known for her novel "Memoirs of Hadrian," which is written as if it were the memoirs of the Roman emperor.