Introduction to the country Bhutan
Fig.1 - Bhutan

Brief information

General Information

Official Name: The Kingdom of Bhutan
Short Name: BT
Continent: Asia


Calling Code: +975
Capital City: Thimphu
Domain: .bt


Area(Sqre/KM): 38117 SqKM
Population: About 771608 as of 2023
Population Density: 20.24
Population By Religion:


Nationality: Bhutanese


Currency: Ngultrum
Latitude: 27.514162
Longitude: 90.433601


Lanugages: Sharchhopka 28%, Dzongkha (official) 24%, Lhotshamkha 22%, other 26% (includes foreign languages) (2005 est.)

Intesting facts

Here are some interesting facts about Bhutan:

  1. The Land of the Thunder Dragon: Bhutan is known as the Land of the Thunder Dragon due to the violent storms that often occur in the Himalayan region.

  2. Gross National Happiness: Bhutan is the only country in the world that measures the well-being of its citizens by a Gross National Happiness index, rather than the Gross Domestic Product.

  3. No traffic lights: Bhutan is one of the few countries in the world that doesn't have any traffic lights. Instead, police officers are responsible for directing traffic in the capital city of Thimphu.

  4. Carbon neutral: Bhutan is the world's only carbon-negative country. This means that it absorbs more carbon dioxide than it produces.

  5. Archery is the national sport: Archery is the national sport of Bhutan, and it is deeply ingrained in the country's culture. Archery tournaments are held throughout the country, and many Bhutanese men and women take part.

  6. A unique dress code: Bhutan has a unique dress code that requires all citizens to wear traditional clothing in public places. Men wear a knee-length robe called a gho, while women wear a floor-length dress called a kira.

  7. The world's highest unclimbed peak: Bhutan is home to Gangkhar Puensum, the world's highest unclimbed peak. Climbing the mountain has been banned since 2003 out of respect for Bhutanese spiritual beliefs.

  8. No zoos: Bhutan is the only country in the world that doesn't have a single zoo. The country believes in preserving its natural environment, and therefore doesn't have any captive animals for public display.

  9. A tiny population: Bhutan has a population of only around 750,000 people, making it one of the smallest countries in the world.

  10. Traditional medicine: Bhutan has a strong tradition of using natural medicines and remedies. The country has a national institute for traditional medicine, and many Bhutanese people still rely on traditional healers for medical treatment.

About Bhutan

Bhutan is a small landlocked country in South Asia, situated in the eastern Himalayas. It is bordered by China to the north and India to the south, east, and west. The country's capital and largest city is Thimphu. Bhutan is known for its commitment to the environment and sustainable development, and it has a unique Gross National Happiness (GNH) development philosophy, which emphasizes the importance of holistic development, cultural preservation, and environmental conservation. Buddhism is the dominant religion, and the country has a rich cultural heritage with traditional arts, music, and dance. The Bhutanese people are primarily ethnic Bhutanese, and the official language is Dzongkha. The country has made significant progress in recent years in terms of economic development and reducing poverty.


Bhutan is a small country with a population of around 750,000 people, and it has only a few major cities. The top cities in Bhutan are:

  1. Thimphu: The capital city of Bhutan, Thimphu is the largest city in the country and home to the royal family.

  2. Phuntsholing: A commercial hub and the second-largest city in Bhutan, located on the border with India.

  3. Paro: A small town located in the Paro Valley, known for its scenic beauty and cultural heritage.

  4. Punakha: A historic city located in the heart of Bhutan, known for its stunning dzongs (fortresses) and temples.

  5. Wangdue Phodrang: A picturesque town in central Bhutan, known for its beautiful landscapes and traditional architecture.

  6. Bumthang: A district in central Bhutan, known for its ancient temples, monasteries, and beautiful valleys.

  7. Trongsa: A historic town located in central Bhutan, famous for its imposing dzong and beautiful landscapes.

  8. Mongar: A town in eastern Bhutan, known for its stunning natural beauty and traditional architecture.

  9. Gelephu: A rapidly developing town in southern Bhutan, known for its agricultural and industrial sectors.

  10. Samdrup Jongkhar: A bustling border town in southeastern Bhutan, located on the border with India and known for its diverse cultural heritage.



Early History and Establishment of Buddhism: Bhutan's history can be traced back to the 8th century, when the legendary Indian Buddhist guru Padmasambhava is said to have arrived in the Paro Valley and established Buddhism in the region. Over time, a distinct Bhutanese culture and political system began to emerge, with local rulers governing their respective valleys.

Unification and the First Druk Gyalpo: In the 17th century, the Buddhist monk Ngawang Namgyal emerged as a unifying figure, bringing together various warring factions and establishing a centralized government. He became the first Druk Gyalpo (Dragon King) of Bhutan and is revered as a national hero to this day. Under his leadership, Bhutan's unique cultural and religious identity flourished.

British Influence and Autonomy: In the 19th century, Bhutan came under increasing pressure from British India, which sought to exert greater control over the region. In 1910, Bhutan signed the Treaty of Punakha, which granted the country greater autonomy in exchange for recognizing British influence over its foreign affairs. However, Bhutan maintained its independence and continued to develop its distinct cultural identity.

Democratic Reforms and the Fourth King: In 2008, Bhutan transitioned to a democratic constitutional monarchy, with King Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck serving as the country's ceremonial head of state. The fourth king, Jigme Singye Wangchuck, is credited with initiating a series of democratic reforms that paved the way for the country's modernization and development. These reforms included the introduction of a written constitution, the establishment of a two-party political system, and the adoption of a "Gross National Happiness" (GNH) index to measure the country's well-being.

Modernization and Economic Development: Since the 1980s, Bhutan has undergone rapid modernization and economic development, while maintaining a strong commitment to preserving its unique cultural heritage and environmental sustainability. The country has made significant strides in areas such as education, healthcare, and infrastructure development, while also promoting tourism and foreign investment. However, Bhutan continues to face challenges such as poverty, youth unemployment, and environmental degradation, and the government is working to address these issues while maintaining its commitment to GNH and sustainable development.



Geography of Bhutan: Bhutan is a landlocked country situated in the eastern Himalayas of South Asia, bordered by China to the north and India to the south, east, and west. The country covers an area of approximately 38,394 square kilometers and ranges from subtropical plains to steep mountains and valleys.

Mountainous Regions: Bhutan is known for its rugged terrain, with mountain peaks ranging from 1,500 to 7,500 meters. The highest peak in Bhutan is Gangkhar Puensum, which stands at 7,570 meters and is also the highest unclimbed mountain in the world. The eastern and central regions of Bhutan are dominated by the Black Mountains, a range of mountains that run north to south and separate the country into two distinct geographic regions.

Valleys and Plains: Bhutan is also home to several valleys and plains that are located at lower altitudes. The most populous and fertile of these is the Paro Valley, which is home to the country's only international airport and is the site of many of Bhutan's most famous landmarks and historical sites. The Punakha Valley, located at an elevation of around 1,200 meters, is another important valley in Bhutan and is known for its picturesque landscapes and historical significance.

Rivers and Lakes: Bhutan is crisscrossed by several large rivers that originate in the Himalayas and flow through the country's valleys and plains. The largest of these is the Drangme Chhu, which flows through the central and eastern regions of the country before emptying into the Brahmaputra River in India. Other major rivers in Bhutan include the Sankosh, Wang Chhu, and Amo Chhu.

In addition to its rivers, Bhutan is also home to several high-altitude lakes, the most famous of which is the glacial Lake Tsongmo, which is located at an altitude of over 3,700 meters near the border with China.

Climate: Bhutan has a varied climate due to its diverse topography and altitude range. The southern regions of the country are tropical, with hot and humid summers and mild winters, while the northern regions are colder and experience snowfall during the winter months. The best time to visit Bhutan is during the spring and autumn seasons, when the weather is mild and dry.

National Parks and Wildlife: Bhutan is home to several national parks and wildlife sanctuaries, including Jigme Dorji National Park, Royal Manas National Park, and Bumdeling Wildlife Sanctuary. These protected areas are home to a wide range of plant and animal species, including the endangered Bengal tiger, snow leopard, and black-necked crane.

Overall, Bhutan's geography and natural resources play a significant role in shaping the country's culture and economy.


Environment and Weather:

Environmental and Weather Conditions of Bhutan: Bhutan is known for its pristine natural environment, and the government of Bhutan has a strong commitment to preserving its rich biodiversity. The country has a unique geographical location and topography, which contributes to its unique environmental conditions.

Climate and Weather: The climate of Bhutan varies from tropical in the south to cold temperate in the north. The country experiences four distinct seasons: winter, spring, summer, and autumn. The weather conditions are influenced by the monsoon winds, which bring heavy rainfall in the summer months (June to August). During the winter months (December to February), the high mountain passes can be covered in snow, and temperatures can drop below freezing.

Biodiversity: Bhutan is a biodiversity hotspot with a diverse range of flora and fauna. The country has a rich collection of plant species, including many rare and endemic species. Bhutan is also home to several endangered animal species, such as the Bengal tiger, one-horned rhinoceros, and the snow leopard. The government of Bhutan has taken steps to preserve and protect its unique biodiversity, including the creation of protected areas and national parks.

Environmental Policies: The government of Bhutan has a strong commitment to preserving the country's natural environment. The country is known for its concept of Gross National Happiness (GNH), which places emphasis on sustainable development and environmental conservation. Bhutan has made significant progress in promoting renewable energy, with a target of generating 100% of its electricity from renewable sources by 2025. The government has also implemented policies to reduce the use of plastic bags and promote sustainable tourism.

Natural Disasters: Bhutan is prone to natural disasters, such as earthquakes, landslides, and flash floods. The government has taken measures to reduce the risk of disasters and to respond to them when they occur. The National Disaster Management Authority is responsible for coordinating disaster management activities, including preparedness, response, and recovery.



Population of Bhutan: Bhutan is a small country with a population of around 800,000 people. The country has a unique way of measuring its progress by measuring Gross National Happiness (GNH) instead of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The population of Bhutan consists of various ethnic groups and languages.

Ethnic groups: The Bhutanese population is composed of three main ethnic groups: the Ngalops, the Sharchops, and the Lhotshampas. The Ngalops are the majority group and are found mainly in the western part of the country. The Sharchops are found in the eastern part of the country, and the Lhotshampas are people of Nepali origin who migrated to Bhutan in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

Languages: Bhutan is a multilingual country, with more than 19 languages and dialects spoken across the country. The official language of Bhutan is Dzongkha, which is spoken by the Ngalops in the western part of the country. Other languages spoken in Bhutan include Sharchopkha, Bumthangkha, and Tshanglakha.

Population growth: Bhutan has a relatively small population growth rate, estimated at around 1.2% per year. The government of Bhutan has implemented various policies to control population growth, such as promoting family planning and educating the population about the benefits of having smaller families. The average life expectancy in Bhutan is around 70 years, and the literacy rate is around 60%.


Art and Culture:

Bhutan's rich cultural heritage is reflected in its art, architecture, music, dance, and festivals. Bhutanese art and culture have been shaped by the country's unique geography and history.

Visual Arts: Bhutanese art is primarily religious in nature, and it is characterized by intricate and colorful designs. Thangkas, or religious paintings, are a popular form of Bhutanese art. Bhutanese artists also create woodcarvings, sculptures, and other forms of art.

Architecture: Bhutanese architecture is distinctive and easily recognizable. The country's traditional buildings are constructed using rammed earth, stone, and wood, and they feature brightly colored decorative motifs. Bhutan's dzongs, or fortress monasteries, are among the most impressive examples of traditional Bhutanese architecture.

Music and Dance: Bhutanese music and dance are an integral part of the country's culture and are closely linked to its religious traditions. The country's traditional music features a variety of instruments, including the dranyen (a six-stringed lute), the dramyin (a long-necked lute), and the yangchen (a type of dulcimer). Bhutanese dance is characterized by elaborate costumes, intricate choreography, and colorful masks.

Festivals: Bhutanese festivals, or tshechus, are an important part of the country's cultural calendar. These festivals are celebrated throughout the year and are usually associated with religious events or historical commemorations. Tshechus are characterized by colorful dances, elaborate costumes, and traditional music.

Bhutanese culture is closely tied to the country's Buddhist religion, and many aspects of daily life are influenced by Buddhist beliefs and practices. The government of Bhutan places a high value on preserving the country's cultural heritage, and efforts are underway to ensure that Bhutan's traditional arts and crafts continue to be passed down to future generations.



Bhutan has made significant progress in the field of education since its modernization process began in the 1960s. Education is considered a top priority in Bhutan, and the government has allocated a large portion of its budget to education in recent years.

Primary and Secondary Education: Primary education in Bhutan is free and compulsory for all children between the ages of 6 and 14. The education system is divided into two levels: lower secondary (grades 6-8) and higher secondary (grades 9-12). Secondary education is not compulsory, but the government provides free education up to grade 10.

Tertiary Education: Tertiary education in Bhutan is provided by various institutions, including the Royal University of Bhutan (RUB) and other private institutions. RUB is the main institution of higher learning in the country, and it has ten constituent colleges spread across the country. The colleges offer a variety of undergraduate and graduate programs in fields such as science, engineering, medicine, education, and business.

Literacy Rates: The literacy rate in Bhutan has improved significantly in recent years. According to the Bhutan Living Standards Survey (BLSS) conducted in 2017, the literacy rate among individuals aged 7 and above is 71.4%. The literacy rate among females has also improved from 54.5% in 2005 to 67.4% in 2017.


Business and Economy:

Bhutan's economy has undergone significant changes in recent decades. Until the 1960s, it was a predominantly agrarian economy with a subsistence farming system. The government has since undertaken numerous development initiatives, including infrastructure development and the promotion of the private sector, which have diversified the economy and reduced its reliance on agriculture.

Growth and Development: Bhutan has achieved impressive economic growth inrecent years, averaging 7.5 percent per year between 2007 and 2017. However, despite this progress, Bhutan remains one of the least developed countries in the world. Its economy is heavily dependent on agriculture, which employs over 60 percent of the population, and hydropower, which accounts for over half of the country's export earnings.

Hydropower: Bhutan is one of the few countries in the world with a 100 percent renewable energy target. The country's abundant water resources make hydropower generation a natural choice for sustainable economic development. Bhutan has been able to develop hydropower projects and export the electricity to India, generating revenue and providing clean energy.

Tourism: Bhutan's tourism industry is one of the country's fastest-growing sectors. The government has implemented a policy of "high-value, low-impact" tourism, which has resulted in a steady increase in the number of visitors. In 2019, over 315,000 tourists visited Bhutan, generating over USD 84 million in revenue.

Agriculture: Bhutan's agricultural sector is still the largest employer in the country, employing over 60 percent of the population. The country's terrain, climate, and isolation have resulted in a unique agricultural system that emphasizes subsistence farming. However, the government has implemented several initiatives to modernize the sector and increase productivity.

Manufacturing: Bhutan's manufacturing sector is still in its infancy, accounting for only a small percentage of the country's GDP. The government has implemented several policies to promote the development of the private sector and attract foreign investment. The manufacturing sector is dominated by small and medium-sized enterprises that produce goods such as textiles, handicrafts, and construction materials.

Trade: Bhutan's trade is dominated by imports, which account for over 80 percent of the country's total trade volume. The country's primary trading partner is India, which accounts for over 90 percent of Bhutan's total trade. Bhutan's exports consist mainly of electricity, minerals, and agricultural products.



Agriculture is the backbone of Bhutan's economy and a primary source of livelihood for a majority of the population. The country's rugged terrain and diverse climatic conditions support a wide range of crops, from rice in the warmer valleys to barley and buckwheat in the cooler highlands. Here are some key points about the agricultural developments in Bhutan:

Agricultural Production: Bhutan produces a variety of crops, including rice, maize, wheat, barley, buckwheat, potatoes, and vegetables. Livestock farming is also an important aspect of agriculture, with yaks, cows, pigs, goats, and poultry being raised for meat and dairy products.

Irrigation Systems: Bhutan's mountainous terrain makes it challenging to irrigate crops, but the country has developed innovative irrigation systems that utilize its abundant water resources. Traditional methods such as diverting water from streams and constructing canals and terraces are still widely used, while modern techniques like sprinklers and drip irrigation are gaining popularity.

Organic Farming: Bhutan has gained international recognition for its commitment to organic farming, which is supported by the government's policy of maintaining at least 60% of the country's land under forest cover. Organic agriculture is seen as a way to protect the environment, conserve biodiversity, and promote sustainable development.


Foods and Fruits:

Bhutanese cuisine is characterized by its spicy flavors and unique blend of herbs and cheese. Some of the most popular dishes include:

Ema datshi: This is the national dish of Bhutan and is made with a spicy cheese sauce and chili peppers. It's often served with red rice.

Phaksha Paa: This dish consists of pork that has been marinated in red chili peppers and then cooked with radishes and spinach.

Momos: These are similar to dumplings and are often filled with vegetables, cheese, or meat.

Jasha Maroo: This is a spicy chicken dish that is cooked with ginger and garlic.

Red Rice: This is a type of rice that is grown in Bhutan and has a nutty flavor and red color.

In addition to these dishes, Bhutan is also known for its fresh and flavorful fruits. Some of the most popular fruits include:

Peaches: Bhutan is known for its sweet and juicy peaches, which are often used to make jams and pickles.

Apples: Apples are another popular fruit in Bhutan and are often eaten fresh or used in desserts.

Oranges: Bhutanese oranges are known for their sweet flavor and are often used to make juice.

Apricots: These small, tart fruits are often used in jams and chutneys.

Bhutan also has a variety of wild fruits, including raspberries, blackberries, and wild strawberries, which are often used in traditional medicine.



Bhutan has made significant progress in the health sector over the past few decades, with the government placing a high priority on the well-being of its citizens.

Healthcare system: The healthcare system in Bhutan is provided by both public and private healthcare facilities. The government provides free basic healthcare services to its citizens, including primary healthcare, maternal and child healthcare, and disease prevention and control programs.

Improvements in healthcare: Over the years, Bhutan has seen significant improvements in the health sector, including a decrease in infant and maternal mortality rates, an increase in life expectancy, and a decrease in the incidence of communicable diseases such as tuberculosis and malaria.

Challenges: Despite these improvements, Bhutan still faces challenges in the health sector, including a shortage of healthcare professionals, inadequate healthcare infrastructure, and a high prevalence of non-communicable diseases such as diabetes and hypertension.

Efforts to address challenges: To address these challenges, the government has taken various initiatives, such as training more healthcare professionals, improving healthcare infrastructure, and promoting healthy lifestyles among its citizens.

Traditional medicine: In addition to modern medicine, traditional medicine is also widely practiced in Bhutan, with the government promoting the integration of traditional medicine into the mainstream healthcare system. Traditional medicine practitioners are trained and regulated by the government, and traditional medicine services are also provided free of charge to the citizens.


Natural Resources:

Bhutan is a small landlocked country in South Asia that is rich in natural resources. The country has a diverse range of natural resources that have played a significant role in the economic development of the nation. Here are some of the natural resources of Bhutan:

Water Resources: Bhutan is known as the "water tower" of South Asia due to its abundant water resources. The country has several large rivers and streams that are fed by the melting snow from the Himalayas. These water resources are a vital source of electricity generation and irrigation for the country.

Forests: Bhutan has a dense forest cover that covers over 70% of its land area. These forests are rich in a variety of flora and fauna and are a significant source of timber, non-timber forest products, and tourism revenue. The country has a strict policy of preserving its forest cover, and it is one of the few countries in the world that has a negative carbon footprint.

Minerals: Bhutan has several minerals such as limestone, gypsum, dolomite, and graphite. The country has vast deposits of these minerals, and they are an essential source of revenue for the country.

Wildlife: Bhutan has a diverse range of wildlife that includes several endangered species such as the snow leopard, Bengal tiger, and black-necked crane. The country has several national parks and wildlife sanctuaries that are home to these species.

Hydropower: Bhutan is known for its vast hydropower potential, and it is one of the few countries in the world that generates almost all of its electricity from hydropower. The country has several large hydropower plants that export electricity to neighboring countries such as India and Bangladesh.


Forest and Biodiversity:

Bhutan is known for its pristine environment, rich biodiversity, and dense forest cover. The country is located in the eastern Himalayas, which is one of the world's ten biodiversity hotspots. The forest and biodiversity of Bhutan have been conserved through the country's unique development philosophy of Gross National Happiness (GNH).

Forest Cover: Bhutan is known for its extensive forest cover, which covers more than 70% of the country's land area. The forest cover in Bhutan is one of the highest in the world. The forest is classified into four categories based on their ecological and economic importance - protected areas, government-managed forests, community-managed forests, and private forests.

Protected Areas: Bhutan has 10 protected areas, covering more than 50% of the country's land area. These protected areas are managed by the government and are home to many endangered species such as the Royal Bengal Tiger, Snow Leopard, and Red Panda.

Wildlife: Bhutan's forests are home to a diverse range of flora and fauna, including several endangered species. The country has more than 200 species of mammals, including the Bengal Tiger, Snow Leopard, Red Panda, and Asiatic Black Bear. The birdlife is equally diverse, with over 700 species of birds recorded in Bhutan.

Conservation Efforts: Bhutan is committed to preserving its forest and biodiversity and has made several efforts to achieve this goal. The country has a constitution that mandates maintaining at least 60% of the country's land area under forest cover. Bhutan is also one of the few countries in the world that is carbon-negative, meaning that the country absorbs more carbon dioxide than it emits.

Biodiversity Conservation: Bhutan has established several conservation programs to preserve its biodiversity. The country has established the Bhutan Trust Fund for Environmental Conservation, which is used to finance conservation projects in the country. Bhutan has also implemented a system of national parks, wildlife sanctuaries, and biological corridors to preserve its wildlife and their habitats.


Mountains and Hills:

Bhutan is a country known for its stunning landscapes, which are dominated by the mighty Himalayas. The country's mountainous terrain is characterized by numerous peaks, valleys, and ridges. Here are some of the major mountains and hills in Bhutan:

1. Gangkhar Puensum: This is the highest mountain in Bhutan and also the highest unclimbed peak in the world. It is located in the Himalayas on the border between Bhutan and China. The mountain's summit has never been reached by any climber due to its sacred status and a climbing ban imposed by the Bhutanese government in 2003.

2. Jomolhari: This is the second-highest peak in Bhutan and one of the country's most popular trekking destinations. It is located on the border between Bhutan and Tibet and has a height of 7,326 meters. The mountain is also known as "the bride of Kanchenjunga."

3. Gangtey Valley: This is a beautiful valley located in central Bhutan. It is home to the Black-Necked Crane, which is an endangered bird species. The valley is surrounded by hills and offers stunning views of the surrounding mountains.

4. Dochula Pass: This is a mountain pass located on the way to Punakha from Thimphu. It is famous for its 108 chortens and stunning views of the Himalayas.

5. Tiger's Nest: This is a famous monastery located on a cliff in Paro Valley. The monastery is believed to be the place where Guru Rinpoche, the founder of Tibetan Buddhism, meditated for three months in the 8th century. The monastery is accessible via a steep hiking trail.

6. Chomolhari Trek: This is a popular trekking route in Bhutan that offers stunning views of the Himalayas. The trek starts from Paro and goes through the Jomolhari Base Camp, Lingshi, and Thimphu.


Rivers and Sea:

Bhutan is a landlocked country in South Asia, and hence it has no direct access to the sea. However, it is home to several rivers and streams that play a crucial role in the country's ecosystem, economy, and daily life.

Rivers: The major rivers of Bhutan are the Drangme Chhu, Wang Chhu, Sunkosh, Puna Tsang Chhu, and Amo Chhu. The rivers flow from the high Himalayas through deep gorges and valleys, providing a source of water for irrigation, hydroelectric power generation, and domestic use. Some of the rivers, such as the Wang Chhu, are also popular spots for fishing and water sports like kayaking and rafting.

Lakes: Bhutan is home to several glacial lakes, which are a major source of freshwater for the country. The largest of these lakes is the Thorthomi Lake, located in the Lunana region of northern Bhutan. Many of these lakes are also considered sacred by the Bhutanese people and are important pilgrimage sites.

Springs and waterfalls: Bhutan also has several hot springs, which are believed to have therapeutic properties. The most popular among these is the Gasa hot spring, located in the Gasa district of western Bhutan. Bhutan is also home to several waterfalls, including the Khamsum Yulley Namgyal Chorten, located in the Punakha district. The waterfall is a popular tourist spot, and visitors can take a short hike to reach the chorten and enjoy the scenic beauty of the surrounding area.

Despite being a small country, Bhutan is rich in natural resources, and its rivers, lakes, and waterfalls are a testament to its unique and diverse geography.


Hospitality and Tourism:

Bhutan is known as the "Land of the Thunder Dragon" and is renowned for its pristine natural beauty and unique culture. The country's policy of "High Value, Low Impact" tourism ensures that Bhutan remains an exclusive and unique destination for visitors. The hospitality industry in Bhutan is primarily centered around the concept of "Community-based tourism," which encourages tourists to experience the local culture while also benefiting the local community.

Hospitality: The people of Bhutan are known for their hospitality and warm welcome to visitors. The tourism industry in Bhutan is committed to providing visitors with a unique and authentic experience of the country, and the local people play an important role in achieving this goal. Visitors are often greeted with a traditional scarf, known as a khada, as a symbol of welcome and respect.

Hotels and Accommodations: The hospitality industry in Bhutan is largely represented by hotels and resorts, which are classified based on the standard of facilities and services they provide. There are several luxury hotels and resorts that cater to the high-end market, while there are also many budget hotels and guesthouses that offer basic amenities. Most hotels and resorts are located in the major tourist destinations such as Paro, Thimphu, and Punakha.

Tourist Destinations: Bhutan has several popular tourist destinations, each with its own unique attractions and cultural significance. Some of the most popular tourist destinations in Bhutan include:

  • Paro Valley: Paro is home to several important Buddhist sites, including the famous Tiger's Nest Monastery. The valley is also known for its scenic beauty, with stunning landscapes and picturesque villages.

  • Thimphu: Thimphu is the capital city of Bhutan and is known for its unique blend of modernity and traditional culture. The city is home to several museums, traditional markets, and monasteries.

  • Punakha: Punakha is a picturesque valley located in central Bhutan and is known for its beautiful dzong (fortress) and scenic beauty. It is also the site of the famous Punakha Festival, which is celebrated every year in February or March.

  • Bumthang: Bumthang is a district in central Bhutan and is known for its stunning natural beauty and historic significance. It is home to several important Buddhist sites and is also famous for its woolen textiles.

Adventure Tourism: Bhutan is also a popular destination for adventure tourism, with several activities such as trekking, mountaineering, rafting, and cycling on offer. The country's rugged terrain and pristine natural beauty make it an ideal destination for adventure enthusiasts.


Top Destinations:

Here are some of the top destinations in Bhutan:

  1. Thimphu: Thimphu is the capital city of Bhutan and one of the most visited destinations. It is home to several monasteries, temples, museums, and other cultural landmarks. The city is also known for its lively markets, street food, and traditional Bhutanese architecture.

  2. Paro: Paro is a picturesque town in Bhutan and a popular destination for tourists. It is located in a valley and is home to the famous Tiger's Nest monastery, which is perched on a cliff at an altitude of over 3,000 meters. Paro also has several other monasteries, museums, and traditional Bhutanese architecture.

  3. Punakha: Punakha is a historic town in Bhutan, located at the confluence of two rivers. It is home to the magnificent Punakha Dzong, which is one of the most beautiful and important dzongs in the country. Punakha is also known for its scenic beauty, with rice paddies and orchards lining the hillsides.

  4. Bumthang: Bumthang is a district in central Bhutan and is often referred to as the cultural heartland of the country. It is home to several monasteries, temples, and other cultural landmarks, including the famous Jakar Dzong and Jambay Lhakhang. Bumthang is also known for its beautiful valleys, apple orchards, and woolen textiles.

  5. Haa Valley: Haa Valley is a remote and sparsely populated region in western Bhutan. It is known for its stunning natural beauty, with snow-capped peaks, pristine forests, and crystal-clear rivers. The valley is home to several small villages, each with its own unique culture and traditions.

  6. Phobjikha Valley: Phobjikha Valley is a glacial valley in central Bhutan and is home to the endangered black-necked crane. It is a popular destination for nature lovers and bird watchers and is also known for its stunning natural beauty, with rolling hills, lush forests, and beautiful meadows.

  7. Trongsa: Trongsa is a town in central Bhutan and is known for its historic Trongsa Dzong, which is one of the largest dzongs in the country. The town is also a popular destination for trekking, with several beautiful trails leading through the surrounding hills and forests.

These are just a few of the many destinations in Bhutan that are worth exploring. Each one offers a unique glimpse into the country's rich culture, history, and natural beauty.


Top Universities:

Bhutan has made significant progress in the field of education over the past few decades. The country has established several universities to provide quality education to its citizens. Here are some of the top universities in Bhutan:

  1. Royal University of Bhutan (RUB): The Royal University of Bhutan is the national university of Bhutan and the apex body of all higher education institutions in the country. It was established in 2003 and is headquartered in Thimphu. The university comprises 10 constituent colleges and offers undergraduate, postgraduate, and doctoral programs in various disciplines.

  2. Jigme Namgyel Engineering College (JNEC): Jigme Namgyel Engineering College is one of the premier engineering colleges in Bhutan. It was established in 1974 and is located in Dewathang, Samdrup Jongkhar. The college offers undergraduate programs in civil, electrical, and mechanical engineering.

  3. Royal Thimphu College (RTC): Royal Thimphu College is a private college located in Thimphu. It was established in 2009 and is affiliated with the University of London. The college offers undergraduate programs in various disciplines, including business, social sciences, and humanities.

  4. College of Natural Resources (CNR): College of Natural Resources is a constituent college of the Royal University of Bhutan. It was established in 1986 and is located in Lobesa, Punakha. The college offers undergraduate and postgraduate programs in agriculture, natural resources management, and forestry.

  5. Gaeddu College of Business Studies (GCBS): Gaeddu College of Business Studies is a constituent college of the Royal University of Bhutan. It was established in 2010 and is located in Gedu, Chukha. The college offers undergraduate programs in business, accounting, and economics.

  6. Sherubtse College: Sherubtse College is the oldest and one of the most prestigious colleges in Bhutan. It was established in 1966 and is located in Kanglung, Trashigang. The college is affiliated with the Royal University of Bhutan and offers undergraduate programs in various disciplines, including science, humanities, and social sciences.


National Days:

National days are significant in every country as they commemorate important events or people in the nation's history. Bhutan celebrates a variety of national days throughout the year, each with its own unique significance.

National Day (December 17th): National Day in Bhutan is celebrated on December 17th every year to commemorate the coronation of the first King of Bhutan, Ugyen Wangchuck. It is a national holiday, and the country comes together to celebrate the day with grand parades, cultural performances, and fireworks.

Losar (February/March): Losar is the Bhutanese New Year and is celebrated in February or March according to the lunar calendar. It is a significant event, and people mark the occasion by visiting monasteries, performing traditional dances, and preparing special dishes.

King's Birthday (February 21st): The birthday of the current King of Bhutan, Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck, is celebrated on February 21st. It is a public holiday, and people across the country celebrate by attending special events and offering prayers.

Teachers' Day (May 2nd): Teachers' Day in Bhutan is celebrated on May 2nd every year to honor the contributions of educators to the country. Schools and educational institutions across Bhutan organize special events to celebrate the day.

Constitution Day (July 18th): Constitution Day in Bhutan is celebrated on July 18th every year to commemorate the adoption of the country's constitution in 2008. It is a public holiday, and people celebrate the day with grand parades and cultural events.

Coronation Day (November 1st): Coronation Day in Bhutan is celebrated on November 1st every year to commemorate the coronation of the fourth King of Bhutan, Jigme Singye Wangchuck. It is a public holiday, and people mark the occasion with grand celebrations and cultural events.


Popular Leaders:

Bhutan, a country known for its peaceful co-existence and Gross National Happiness, has had a long line of prominent leaders. Here are some of the popular leaders of Bhutan:

  1. King Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck: The current King of Bhutan, Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck, was crowned in 2008 after his father abdicated the throne. He has been a popular leader in Bhutan and is known for his efforts in promoting democracy and preserving the country's cultural heritage.

  2. King Jigme Singye Wangchuck: The fourth King of Bhutan, Jigme Singye Wangchuck, is credited with initiating the country's modernization efforts and opening up to the outside world. He also introduced the concept of Gross National Happiness (GNH) as a measure of development in Bhutan.

  3. Dasho Tshering Tobgay: Tshering Tobgay served as the Prime Minister of Bhutan from 2013 to 2018. He is credited with implementing various developmental projects and initiatives during his tenure, including the 'One Nation One Law' campaign and the establishment of the Bhutan Kidney Foundation.

  4. Lyonchen Jigmi Y. Thinley: Jigmi Y. Thinley served as the Prime Minister of Bhutan from 1998 to 1999, and again from 2008 to 2013. He is known for his contributions to Bhutan's democratization process and his efforts to promote regional integration.

  5. Ashi Kesang Choden Wangchuck: Ashi Kesang Choden Wangchuck is the Queen Mother of Bhutan and the mother of the current King, Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck. She is known for her work in preserving Bhutan's cultural heritage and promoting the country's traditional arts and crafts.

These are some of the popular leaders of Bhutan who have made significant contributions to the country's development and progress.



Bhutan is a small country with a population of just over 700,000 people, and as such, there are not many scientists who have gained worldwide recognition. However, there are still several notable scientists from Bhutan who have made important contributions in their respective fields.

Dasho Sangay Dorji Dasho Sangay Dorji is a leading environmentalist and conservationist in Bhutan. He has worked tirelessly to promote sustainable development and protect Bhutan's unique environment. In recognition of his contributions, he was awarded the Goldman Environmental Prize in 2016, which is considered the world's most prestigious environmental award.

Dr. Karma Ura Dr. Karma Ura is a prominent Bhutanese mathematician and economist. He is the founder and president of the Centre for Bhutan Studies, which is a leading research organization in Bhutan. He has published numerous papers on topics ranging from economic development to cultural preservation, and his work has been instrumental in shaping Bhutan's development policies.

Dasho Karma Ura Dasho Karma Ura is a distinguished civil servant who has served in various high-level positions in Bhutan's government. He played a key role in drafting Bhutan's constitution, which established the country as a democratic constitutional monarchy. He has also been involved in various social and environmental initiatives in Bhutan, including the establishment of the Bhutan Foundation, which supports development projects in the country.

Lyonpo Yeshey Dorji Lyonpo Yeshey Dorji is a former Minister of Agriculture and Forests in Bhutan. He is also a prominent conservationist and environmentalist, and has been instrumental in promoting sustainable development and protecting Bhutan's natural resources. He played a key role in the establishment of Bhutan's national parks system, which has helped to preserve the country's unique biodiversity.

Dr. Tshewang Tandin Dr. Tshewang Tandin is a leading expert on traditional medicine in Bhutan. He has conducted extensive research on the subject and has written several books on traditional Bhutanese medicine. He has also been involved in the development of Bhutan's modern healthcare system and has served as the director of Bhutan's traditional medicine program.


Writers and Poets:

Writers and poets have played a significant role in Bhutanese society, contributing to the preservation of the country's cultural heritage. Here are some of the notable writers and poets of Bhutan:

  1. Dasho Sherub Gyaltshen: He is one of the most prominent Bhutanese writers, known for his works on Buddhist philosophy, history, and culture. He has written several books, including "A Short History of Bhutan" and "History of Bhutan based on Buddhism."

  2. Kunzang Choden: She is Bhutan's first female novelist and a pioneer in Bhutanese literature. Her works often explore the lives of Bhutanese women and their struggles. Some of her notable works include "The Circle of Karma" and "Dawa: The Story of a Stray Dog in Bhutan."

  3. Pema Tseden: He is a contemporary Bhutanese filmmaker, writer, and poet. His works often address issues of modernity and tradition in Bhutanese society. He has directed several films and written several books, including "The Search" and "Tales from the Sky Kingdom."

  4. Kuzoo: He is a popular Bhutanese poet and musician. His works often reflect his love for his country and its natural beauty. He has released several albums and published several books, including "Echoes from the Mountains" and "Pebbles of Sound."

  5. Tshering Tashi: He is a renowned Bhutanese poet, writer, and translator. He has written several books of poetry, including "Whispers of the Dragon" and "The Arrow and the Spindle." He is also known for his translations of classical Bhutanese texts into English.

These writers and poets have made significant contributions to Bhutanese literature and culture, and their works continue to inspire and educate people in Bhutan and beyond.