Brief information

General Information

Official Name: The Russian Federation
Short Name: RU
Continent: Asia


Calling Code: +7
Capital City: Moscow
Domain: .ru


Area(Sqre/KM): 16376870 SqKM
Population: About 145934462 as of 2023
Population Density: 8.91
Population By Religion:


Nationality: Russians


Currency: Ruble
Latitude: 61.52401
Longitude: 105.318756


Lanugages: Russian (official) 96.3%, Dolgang 5.3%, German 1.5%, Chechen 1%, Tatar 3%, other 10.3%

Intesting facts

Here are some interesting facts about Russia:

  1. Russia is the world's largest country, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area.

  2. The Trans-Siberian Railway in Russia is the longest railway in the world, stretching over 9,000 km from Moscow to Vladivostok.

  3. Lake Baikal, located in Russia, is the world's deepest freshwater lake and holds about 20% of the world's unfrozen freshwater.

  4. Russia is home to the largest active volcano in Eurasia, Klyuchevskaya Sopka, which stands at 4,750 meters.

  5. The famous Russian nesting dolls, or Matryoshka dolls, were first created in the late 19th century and have become a symbol of Russian folk art.

  6. The iconic onion-shaped domes on many Russian churches were originally inspired by Islamic architecture and were meant to symbolize burning candles.

  7. The Bolshoi Ballet in Moscow is one of the oldest and most prestigious ballet companies in the world.

  8. Russian cuisine features many unique dishes such as borscht, pelmeni, and blini.

  9. Moscow, the capital of Russia, has the most billionaires of any city in the world.

  10. Russia is home to many unique animals, including the Siberian tiger, polar bear, and beluga whale.

About Russia

Russia, officially known as the Russian Federation, is the largest country in the world, located in Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. It shares its borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, North Korea, and Mongolia. It spans over two continents and eleven time zones, making it the most expansive country in the world. Russia has a rich and diverse culture, and its history is marked by significant events such as the rise and fall of the Soviet Union, the Bolshevik Revolution, and World War II. The capital city of Russia is Moscow, which is also the country's political and cultural center.


Russia has many cities, and each has its unique charm and attractions. Here are some of the top cities in Russia:

  1. Moscow: The capital city of Russia and the most populous city in Europe, Moscow is known for its stunning architecture, rich history, and vibrant cultural scene.

  2. St. Petersburg: Known as the cultural capital of Russia, St. Petersburg is home to some of the country's most beautiful buildings, museums, and galleries.

  3. Novosibirsk: The largest city in Siberia and a major industrial and cultural center, Novosibirsk is home to a vibrant arts and culture scene.

  4. Yekaterinburg: Located in the Ural Mountains, Yekaterinburg is a city with a rich history and a vibrant arts and culture scene.

  5. Kazan: Known for its beautiful architecture and cultural diversity, Kazan is the capital of the Republic of Tatarstan and one of Russia's largest cities.

  6. Vladivostok: Situated on the Pacific coast of Russia, Vladivostok is a bustling port city and the gateway to the Russian Far East.

  7. Sochi: A popular resort town on the Black Sea, Sochi is known for its beautiful beaches, natural hot springs, and stunning mountain scenery.

  8. Nizhny Novgorod: Located on the banks of the Volga River, Nizhny Novgorod is known for its beautiful architecture, museums, and galleries.

  9. Kaliningrad: A Russian exclave on the Baltic Sea, Kaliningrad is known for its beautiful beaches, stunning architecture, and unique history.

  10. Samara: Located on the Volga River, Samara is a vibrant city with a rich history and a thriving cultural scene.



The history of Russia spans over a thousand years, beginning with the formation of the Kievan Rus in the 9th century. The Kievan Rus was a loose federation of East Slavic tribes, which was eventually united under the rule of the Grand Prince of Kiev. Over time, the Kievan Rus expanded its territory, forming the basis for what would later become the Russian Empire.

In the 16th and 17th centuries, Russia underwent a period of significant expansion and modernization under the rule of the Tsars. This period saw the emergence of a centralized, absolute monarchy, as well as the expansion of the Russian Empire into Siberia, Alaska, and other territories.

In the 20th century, Russia was transformed by the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917, which established the world's first communist state. Under Soviet rule, Russia underwent significant industrialization and modernization, but also experienced periods of political repression and social upheaval.

After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, Russia transitioned to a democratic, market-based system, but has since experienced periods of political and economic instability. Today, Russia is a federal semi-presidential republic, with Vladimir Putin serving as its current president.


Russia is the largest country in the world, spanning over 17.1 million square kilometers. It is situated in northern Eurasia and shares borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, China, and North Korea.

Russia has a diverse landscape, with vast stretches of forest, tundra, and steppe regions. The country is home to many mountain ranges, including the Ural Mountains, the Caucasus Mountains, and the Altai Mountains. The Russian Federation also has many rivers, including the Volga, the longest river in Europe, and the Ob and Yenisei, two of the longest rivers in Asia. The country also has several large lakes, including Lake Baikal, the deepest lake in the world.


Russia is the largest country in the world and spans two continents, Europe and Asia. As a result, it has a diverse range of climates and environments. The climate varies from arctic in the north to subtropical in the south. The country is also home to some of the coldest inhabited places on Earth, such as the city of Yakutsk in Siberia, which regularly experiences winter temperatures below -40 degrees Celsius.

The environmental issues facing Russia include air and water pollution, deforestation, soil erosion, and the impact of climate change on permafrost in Siberia. The government has implemented various policies and initiatives to address these issues, including efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and promote renewable energy. Despite these efforts, Russia continues to face environmental challenges, particularly in areas with heavy industry and resource extraction.


As of 2021, the estimated population of Russia is around 144 million, making it the ninth most populous country in the world. The population is relatively unevenly distributed, with the majority of people living in urban areas, particularly in the western part of the country. Moscow is the most populous city, with around 12 million inhabitants, followed by St. Petersburg with around 5.3 million inhabitants. Other major cities include Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg, Nizhny Novgorod, and Kazan. The population has been decreasing in recent years due to low birth rates and emigration.


Art and Culture:

Russia has a rich and diverse cultural heritage that encompasses literature, music, dance, art, architecture, and more. Russian art and culture have been shaped by the country's tumultuous history, which has seen periods of great prosperity and artistic achievement as well as times of hardship and censorship.

Russian literature is one of the country's most famous and influential cultural exports. Russian writers such as Leo Tolstoy, Fyodor Dostoevsky, and Anton Chekhov are among the most celebrated authors in world literature. Russian classical music, including the works of Tchaikovsky, Rachmaninoff, and Stravinsky, is also highly regarded internationally.

Traditional Russian folk music and dance are an important part of the country's cultural heritage, and can be seen in performances by groups such as the world-renowned Moiseyev Dance Company. Russia is also known for its distinctive style of architecture, with iconic structures such as St. Basil's Cathedral and the Kremlin in Moscow, and the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg.

Contemporary Russian art and culture are also vibrant and dynamic, with a thriving independent music scene, a growing film industry, and a host of contemporary artists and designers making a name for themselves on the international stage.

Business and Economy:

Russia has a mixed economy with both private and state-owned enterprises. It is the world's 11th largest economy by nominal GDP and the 6th largest by purchasing power parity. The country's economy is heavily dependent on the export of natural resources such as oil, gas, and metals.

The energy sector is a major part of the Russian economy, with oil and natural gas accounting for a large portion of the country's exports. Russia is also a major exporter of metals, such as steel and aluminum, as well as fertilizers, chemicals, and weapons.

The service sector, including finance, transportation, and telecommunications, is also an important part of the economy. Russia has a large pool of highly educated workers, and its IT industry is rapidly growing.

However, Russia faces challenges such as corruption, lack of diversification, and a challenging business climate. The government has implemented a number of reforms aimed at improving the business environment and encouraging foreign investment.


Agriculture is an important sector in Russia, accounting for about 4% of the country's GDP and employing around 10% of the population. The country is known for its vast expanses of fertile land and natural resources, which have historically made it one of the world's major agricultural producers.

Russia is a leading producer of wheat, barley, rye, oats, and other grains, with the majority of its agricultural production taking place in the country's southern regions. The country is also a major producer of potatoes, sugar beets, sunflower seeds, and other crops.

In recent years, the Russian government has taken steps to modernize and improve the efficiency of the country's agricultural sector, including increasing investment in agricultural research and development, promoting the use of modern farming technologies, and providing financial incentives for farmers.

However, the agricultural sector in Russia still faces a number of challenges, including a shortage of skilled labor, outdated infrastructure, and the effects of climate change, such as droughts and other extreme weather events.


Russian cuisine is diverse and reflects the country's vast territory and cultural influences. Some of the most popular foods in Russia include:

  1. Borscht: A soup made with beets, meat, and cabbage.

  2. Blini: Thin, crepe-like pancakes often served with sour cream, jam, or caviar.

  3. Pelmeni: Small dumplings filled with meat or vegetables.

  4. Shashlik: Skewered meat, usually marinated in spices.

  5. Kasha: A porridge made from various grains, such as buckwheat or oats.

  6. Caviar: Salt-cured fish roe, considered a delicacy in Russia.

As for fruits, Russia has a wide variety of berries and other fruits that grow in the country's northern regions, including lingonberries, cloudberries, blueberries, and cranberries. In addition, apples, pears, and plums are common in Russia.


Russia has a well-established healthcare system that provides free medical services to its citizens. The country has made significant strides in the health sector, and its health infrastructure has undergone massive development over the years. The country has a large number of healthcare facilities, including hospitals, clinics, and other medical centers, that provide a wide range of medical services.

Russia has a national health insurance system that covers all citizens and residents, providing them with access to basic medical services. The government has also implemented various public health programs aimed at improving the health of its citizens, such as programs to combat HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and other infectious diseases.

In recent years, Russia has invested heavily in modernizing its health infrastructure and improving the quality of medical care provided to its citizens. The country is also home to some of the world's leading medical research institutions, and Russian scientists have made significant contributions to the field of medicine.


Russia has vast forest areas that are home to various flora and fauna. The country has 11 percent of the world's forests, making it the largest forest country in the world. The Russian forest area spans over 800 million hectares, which is approximately 45 percent of the country's total land area.

The biodiversity of the Russian forests is impressive, with over 60,000 species of plants, 27,000 species of insects, and 10,000 species of vertebrates, including bears, elk, lynx, and wolves. The Siberian tiger is one of the rare and endangered species found in the Russian forests.

However, the forests in Russia face threats from deforestation, illegal logging, and wildfires, which have become increasingly severe in recent years due to climate change. The government has taken measures to combat these issues and preserve the forests' biodiversity.


Russia is a vast country, covering 17.1 million square kilometers, and it contains several mountain ranges and hills. The most well-known mountain range is the Ural Mountains, which divide Russia into its European and Asian halves. These mountains stretch from the Arctic Ocean to the Ural River in Kazakhstan and provide a natural boundary between Europe and Asia. The highest peak in the Urals is Mount Narodnaya, which stands at 1,894 meters.

The Caucasus Mountains are another important mountain range in Russia, located in the southern part of the country. They stretch for 1,100 kilometers from the Black Sea to the Caspian Sea and contain several peaks over 5,000 meters in height. Mount Elbrus, the highest peak in Europe, is located in the Caucasus and stands at 5,642 meters.

Other notable mountain ranges in Russia include the Altai Mountains, the Sayan Mountains, and the Pamir Mountains. The Altai Mountains are located in southern Siberia and are known for their stunning natural beauty and rich biodiversity. The Sayan Mountains are located in the southern part of Siberia and contain several peaks over 3,000 meters in height. The Pamir Mountains are located in the far eastern part of Russia and are part of the larger Himalayan mountain range.

Rivers and Sea:

Russia is the largest country in the world and has a vast network of rivers and seas. The country is home to some of the world's longest and widest rivers such as the Volga, Ob, and Yenisei rivers. The Volga is the longest river in Europe and flows through central Russia into the Caspian Sea. The Ob and Yenisei rivers are the largest rivers in Siberia, and they both flow north into the Arctic Ocean.

In addition to rivers, Russia has several seas bordering its coastline, including the Arctic Ocean, the Pacific Ocean, the Baltic Sea, the Black Sea, and the Caspian Sea. The Arctic Ocean borders Russia to the north and is mostly covered by ice year-round. The Pacific Ocean borders Russia to the east, and the Sea of Japan is the most significant arm of the Pacific Ocean in the region. The Baltic Sea is located in the northwest of Russia and is shared with several European countries, including Finland, Sweden, and Estonia. The Black Sea is located in the southwest of Russia and is shared with Turkey, Ukraine, and several other countries. The Caspian Sea is a landlocked sea and is the largest inland body of water in the world.

Hospitality and Tourism:

Russia is one of the most popular tourist destinations in the world, known for its rich history, beautiful architecture, diverse landscapes, and unique culture. The country offers a wide range of attractions and experiences for tourists, from the cosmopolitan city of Moscow to the stunning natural beauty of Lake Baikal and the Russian Far East.

Some of the top tourist attractions in Russia include:

  1. Red Square and the Kremlin in Moscow

  2. St. Petersburg, known as the cultural capital of Russia

  3. The Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg

  4. The Trans-Siberian Railway, the longest railway in the world

  5. The ancient city of Kazan, a UNESCO World Heritage Site

  6. The Altai Mountains, a stunning natural wonder in southern Siberia

  7. Lake Baikal, the world's largest freshwater lake, located in eastern Siberia

  8. The Golden Ring, a group of ancient towns northeast of Moscow

  9. Sochi, a popular resort city on the Black Sea coast

  10. Kamchatka, a remote peninsula in the Russian Far East known for its volcanic landscapes and wildlife.

Russia is also home to a vibrant hospitality industry, with many hotels, restaurants, and other tourist services available to visitors. While tourism is an important part of the Russian economy, it is important to note that travel to Russia can be subject to visa requirements and other restrictions, so it is important to do your research before planning a trip.

Top Destinations:

Russia is a vast country with many beautiful and unique destinations. Some of the top destinations in Russia are:

  1. Moscow - The capital city of Russia, home to iconic landmarks such as the Red Square, St. Basil's Cathedral, and the Kremlin.

  2. St. Petersburg - Known as the cultural capital of Russia, it is home to the world-renowned Hermitage Museum, the Palace Square, and the beautiful Peterhof Palace.

  3. Sochi - A popular seaside resort city located on the Black Sea coast and known for its beautiful beaches, parks, and scenic views of the Caucasus Mountains.

  4. Lake Baikal - The largest freshwater lake in the world and a UNESCO World Heritage Site, located in Siberia and famous for its crystal-clear waters and diverse ecosystem.

  5. Kazan - The capital city of Tatarstan, known for its beautiful mix of Eastern and Western cultures and its iconic Kazan Kremlin.

  6. Golden Ring - A collection of ancient cities and towns northeast of Moscow, famous for their stunning architecture and historical significance.

  7. Kamchatka Peninsula - A remote region in the far east of Russia known for its stunning natural beauty, active volcanoes, and diverse wildlife.

  8. Trans-Siberian Railway - One of the world's most famous train routes, spanning 9,289 kilometers from Moscow to Vladivostok and passing through beautiful landscapes and remote villages.

These are just a few examples of the many incredible destinations that Russia has to offer.

National Days:

Russia celebrates several national days throughout the year. Here are some of the most important ones:

  1. New Year's Day (January 1): Like many countries, Russia celebrates New Year's Day with fireworks, feasts, and parties.

  2. Defender of the Fatherland Day (February 23): This day honors the men and women who have served in the Russian military.

  3. International Women's Day (March 8): A day to celebrate the contributions of women in society.

  4. Victory Day (May 9): This day commemorates the victory of the Soviet Union over Nazi Germany in World War II.

  5. Russia Day (June 12): Celebrated since 1992, this day marks the adoption of the Declaration of State Sovereignty of the Russian Federation.

  6. Unity Day (November 4): This day commemorates the end of the Time of Troubles in the 17th century, and celebrates the unity of the Russian people.

These are just a few of the many national days celebrated in Russia.

Popular Leaders:

Russia has a long and complex history of leaders, ranging from monarchs to Soviet officials and modern-day presidents. Here are some of the most notable leaders in Russian history:

  1. Ivan IV (the Terrible) - he was the first czar of Russia, who ruled from 1547 to 1584. His reign saw the expansion of the Russian Empire and the modernization of its army and administration.

  2. Peter the Great - he was another famous czar who ruled from 1682 to 1725. He modernized Russia by westernizing it, expanding the empire, and establishing St. Petersburg as the new capital.

  3. Catherine the Great - she ruled from 1762 to 1796 and was the longest-serving female ruler in Russian history. During her reign, she expanded the empire's borders, promoted the arts and education, and modernized the economy.

  4. Vladimir Lenin - he was the founder of the Soviet Union and led the Bolshevik Revolution in 1917. He was the first leader of the Soviet Union and led the country until his death in 1924.

  5. Joseph Stalin - he ruled the Soviet Union from 1924 until his death in 1953. Under his leadership, the Soviet Union became a world power, but also experienced widespread repression and human rights abuses.

  6. Mikhail Gorbachev - he was the last leader of the Soviet Union, serving from 1985 to 1991. He implemented a policy of political and economic reforms, known as perestroika and glasnost, which ultimately led to the dissolution of the Soviet Union.

  7. Vladimir Putin - he has been the president of Russia since 2000, with a brief stint as prime minister from 1999 to 2000. Putin has overseen a period of political stability and economic growth in Russia, but also been criticized for his authoritarian style of government and human rights abuses.



Russia has a long and impressive history of scientific achievement, with many famous scientists, inventors, and mathematicians having hailed from the country. Some notable Russian scientists include:

  1. Mikhail Lomonosov: A polymath who made significant contributions to fields such as chemistry, physics, and astronomy. He is also credited with founding Moscow State University.

  2. Dmitri Mendeleev: A chemist who is best known for his development of the periodic table of elements. His work in this field earned him the title of "father of the periodic table."

  3. Ivan Pavlov: A physiologist who is best known for his work on classical conditioning. He conducted groundbreaking experiments with dogs that helped to establish the principles of behaviorism.

  4. Andrei Sakharov: A nuclear physicist who is best known for his work on the Soviet Union's nuclear weapons program. He later became a prominent human rights activist and was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1975.

  5. Lev Landau: A physicist who made significant contributions to the fields of quantum mechanics and condensed matter physics. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1962.

  6. Sergei Korolev: A rocket engineer who is widely regarded as the father of the Soviet space program. He was responsible for the development of the R-7 rocket, which was used to launch the first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1, in 1957.

  7. Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn: While not a scientist, Solzhenitsyn is a notable figure in Russian history for his literary contributions. He is best known for his novel "One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich," which depicts life in a Soviet prison camp. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1970.

These are just a few examples of the many famous scientists who have contributed to Russian science and technology.

Writers and poets:

Russia has a rich literary tradition and is home to many famous writers and poets. Some of the most notable include:

  1. Alexander Pushkin: Considered the father of modern Russian literature, Pushkin is known for his poetry and prose. His most famous works include "Eugene Onegin" and "The Bronze Horseman."

  2. Fyodor Dostoevsky: One of the greatest writers in world literature, Dostoevsky is known for his psychological depth and philosophical insights. His most famous works include "Crime and Punishment," "The Brothers Karamazov," and "Notes from Underground."

  3. Leo Tolstoy: Tolstoy is considered one of the greatest novelists in history and his works have had a profound impact on Russian literature. His most famous works include "War and Peace" and "Anna Karenina."

  4. Anton Chekhov: Known for his plays and short stories, Chekhov is considered one of the greatest writers of the 19th century. His most famous works include "The Cherry Orchard" and "The Seagull."

  5. Vladimir Nabokov: Nabokov is known for his mastery of the English language, as well as his unique and innovative style. His most famous works include "Lolita" and "Pale Fire."

  6. Mikhail Bulgakov: Bulgakov is known for his satirical and fantastical style, as well as his criticisms of Soviet society. His most famous work is "The Master and Margarita."

  7. Anna Akhmatova: One of the most important Russian poets of the 20th century, Akhmatova is known for her powerful and emotional poetry. Her most famous works include "Requiem" and "Poem Without a Hero."

These writers and poets have had a profound impact on Russian culture and continue to be celebrated and studied today.