Vatican City

Brief information

General Information

Official Name: Città del Vaticano
Short Name: VA
Continent: Europe


Calling Code: +379
Capital City: Vatican City
Domain: .va


Area(Sqre/KM): 0.49 SqKM
Population: About 825 as of 2023
Population Density: 1683.67
Population By Religion:


Nationality: Vatican


Currency: Euro
Latitude: 41.902916
Longitude: 12.453389


Lanugages: Latin, Italian, French

Intesting facts

Here are some interesting facts about Vatican City:

  1. Smallest Independent State: Vatican City is the smallest independent state in the world by both area and population. It covers an area of just 0.17 square miles (0.44 square kilometers) and has a population of around 800 people.

  2. Spiritual Capital of the Catholic Church: Vatican City is the spiritual capital of the Catholic Church and serves as the residence of the Pope. It is the center of Catholicism and holds great religious significance for millions of Catholics around the world.

  3. St. Peter's Basilica: Located in Vatican City, St. Peter's Basilica is one of the most renowned and largest Christian churches in the world. It is considered a masterpiece of Renaissance architecture and houses many precious artworks, including Michelangelo's famous sculpture, the Pietà.

  4. Vatican Museums: Vatican City is home to the Vatican Museums, which house an extensive collection of art and historical treasures. The museums feature works by renowned artists such as Raphael, Leonardo da Vinci, and Caravaggio, among others.

  5. Sistine Chapel: The Sistine Chapel, located within the Vatican Museums, is famous for its breathtaking frescoes, including Michelangelo's iconic ceiling painting, "The Creation of Adam." The chapel is also where the Papal conclave takes place to elect a new Pope.

  6. Papal Swiss Guard: The Vatican City is protected by the Papal Swiss Guard, one of the oldest and smallest military units in the world. Their colorful uniforms and ceremonial duties make them a notable attraction for visitors.

  7. Independent City-State: Vatican City is an independent city-state with its own government, separate from Italy. It has its own postal system, currency (Vatican euro coins), and even issues its own passports.

  8. UNESCO World Heritage Site: Vatican City, including St. Peter's Basilica, the Vatican Museums, and the Sistine Chapel, has been recognized as a UNESCO World Heritage Site for its outstanding cultural and historical value.

  9. Palace of the Popes: The Apostolic Palace, also known as the Palace of the Popes, is the official residence of the Pope within Vatican City. It comprises various buildings, courtyards, and gardens, reflecting the grandeur and history of the Papacy.

  10. Papal Audience and Blessing: Visitors to Vatican City have the opportunity to attend the Papal Audience held by the Pope, where he delivers blessings and addresses the crowd. It is a unique experience for pilgrims and tourists alike.

About Vatican City

Vatican City, officially known as the Vatican City State, is an independent city-state enclaved within Rome, Italy. With an area of approximately 44 hectares (110 acres) and a population of around 800, it is the smallest internationally recognized independent state in the world. Vatican City is the spiritual and administrative headquarters of the Roman Catholic Church and is the residence of the Pope, who is the head of the Church.

Vatican City holds great historical and religious significance as the center of the Catholic Church and the seat of the Pope. It is home to numerous iconic landmarks, including St. Peter's Basilica, the Vatican Museums, and the Sistine Chapel, which houses Michelangelo's famous ceiling frescoes. These cultural and religious treasures attract millions of visitors each year, making Vatican City a major pilgrimage site and a popular destination for tourists from around the globe.


Vatican City is a small city-state with an area of only 0.17 square miles, and it does not have any distinct cities within its territory. The entire city-state of Vatican City is considered as one entity and does not have separate cities. Vatican City primarily consists of St. Peter's Square, St. Peter's Basilica, the Apostolic Palace, and various other buildings and gardens.



In 1870, the Kingdom of Italy annexed Rome and most of the Papal States, leaving the Pope confined within the Vatican. This situation persisted for decades until the signing of the Lateran Treaty in 1929, which established Vatican City as an independent city-state under the sovereignty of the Holy See, the ecclesiastical authority of the Catholic Church.Over the years, Vatican City has undergone various expansions and modernizations to accommodate the administrative and cultural needs of the Holy See. Significant landmarks were constructed, including the iconic St. Peter's Square and St. Peter's Basilica, which serve as important pilgrimage sites for Catholics worldwide.



Geographical Features

Vatican City spans an area of approximately 44 hectares (110 acres), making it the smallest internationally recognized independent state in the world. It is entirely surrounded by the city of Rome and is enclosed by high walls. The Tiber River flows just east of Vatican City, adding to its picturesque setting.

Urban Layout

Vatican City's urban layout is carefully planned and organized, with an emphasis on its role as the spiritual and administrative headquarters of the Catholic Church. The heart of the city is centered around St. Peter's Square and St. Peter's Basilica, which serve as gathering places for religious ceremonies, papal addresses, and public events.


Vatican City is well-connected to the city of Rome and can be easily accessed by various modes of transportation. Visitors can reach the city-state by walking or taking public transportation from different parts of Rome.


Environment and Weather:

Vatican City experiences a Mediterranean climate, characterized by mild winters and hot summers. The city-state enjoys abundant sunshine throughout the year, making it a pleasant destination for visitors. The average temperature ranges from around 8°C (46°F) in winter to 30°C (86°F) in summer. Rainfall is moderate, with the wettest months typically occurring during the autumn and winter seasons. Spring and summer are generally drier, providing favorable conditions for outdoor activities and exploring the city.



Vatican City has a very small population due to its compact size and specific role as the spiritual and administrative center of the Roman Catholic Church. As of 2021, the population is estimated to be around 825 individuals. This makes it the least populous internationally recognized independent state. The population of Vatican City primarily consists of individuals who are associated with the Roman Catholic Church. These include members of the clergy, such as priests, bishops, and cardinals, as well as members of religious orders and other Vatican employees. The Holy See, the governing body of the Catholic Church, also has its headquarters within Vatican City.


Art and Culture:

Vatican City is not only a spiritual and political center but also a hub of rich art and culture. Here is an overview of the art and culture of Vatican City.

Historical Significance: Vatican City has a long history of patronage and preservation of art and culture. It is home to numerous historical and architectural masterpieces that have been accumulated over centuries.

Vatican Museums: One of the prominent cultural attractions in Vatican City is the Vatican Museums. These museums house a vast collection of artworks spanning various periods and styles.

St. Peter's Basilica: St. Peter's Basilica is another significant cultural and artistic landmark in Vatican City. It is the largest church in the world and a masterpiece of Renaissance architecture.

Liturgical Music and Choir: Vatican City is renowned for its liturgical music and the Vatican Choir. The Vatican has a long-standing tradition of musical excellence, and its choir performs during important religious ceremonies and papal events.

Papal Events and Festivities: Vatican City hosts various papal events and festivities that are deeply rooted in its cultural heritage. These include papal audiences, Easter and Christmas celebrations, the election of a new pope, and the Sistine Chapel Choir's performances.



Vatican City is home to a few educational institutions that primarily cater to the needs of the clergy, Vatican employees, and the families of residents. The Pontifical Lateran University and the Pontifical Biblical Institute are among the notable educational institutions in Vatican City. These institutions offer theological and biblical studies to prepare individuals for various roles within the Catholic Church. 


Business and Economy:

Tourism: Tourism plays a significant role in Vatican City's economy. The city-state attracts millions of visitors each year who come to explore its cultural and historical treasures. 

Sales of Postage Stamps and Coins: Vatican City is known for producing its postage stamps and coins, which are highly sought after by collectors worldwide. The sale of postage stamps and coins, often featuring religious and historical motifs, generates additional revenue for Vatican City.

Donations and Financial Support: As the spiritual center of the Catholic Church, Vatican City receives substantial donations and financial support from Catholic faithful around the world. The donations play a crucial role in supporting the operations and initiatives of Vatican City.



Vatican City, with its limited land area and unique status as a city-state, faces challenges in developing extensive agricultural practices. However, the city-state has made efforts to cultivate a sustainable agricultural system within its boundaries. Here is an overview of the agricultural developments of Vatican City.


Foods and Fruits:

Vatican City, although small in size, offers a variety of delicious foods and fresh fruits that reflect the culinary traditions of Italy and the Vatican. While the city-state's culinary scene is influenced by its geographical proximity to Rome, it also embraces international flavors to cater to its diverse population. Here is an overview of the foods and fruits you can find in Vatican City. Italian cuisine plays a dominant role in the culinary offerings of Vatican City. Visitors and residents can indulge in a wide range of Italian dishes, such as pizza, pasta, risotto, and gelato. These classic Italian delicacies are prepared with fresh ingredients, including local herbs, cheeses, and olive oil, ensuring a delightful culinary experience.



Vatican City places a strong emphasis on providing comprehensive healthcare services to its residents, workers, and visitors. Despite its small size, the city-state prioritizes the well-being and health of its population. Here is an overview of the health sector development in Vatican City. Vatican City boasts modern healthcare infrastructure and facilities to cater to the medical needs of its population. The city-state operates a medical center, the Vatican Health Service, which provides primary healthcare services, emergency care, and specialized medical consultations. The medical center is equipped with state-of-the-art equipment and staffed by qualified healthcare professionals.


Natural Resources:

Being a small city-state entirely surrounded by Rome, Vatican City does not possess extensive natural resources like other countries. However, it does have a few notable resources that contribute to its cultural and historical significance.

  1. Building Materials
  2. Water Sources
  3. Vatican Gardens
  4. Cultural and Historical Heritage 


Forest and Biodiversity:

Vatican City, being a small city-state with limited land area, does not have vast expanses of forests or a wide range of biodiversity. However, it does have some green spaces and a small collection of plant species that contribute to its natural beauty and ecological balance.


Mountains and Hills:

Vatican City, being a small city-state located within the city of Rome, does not have any significant mountains or hills within its borders. The city-state is situated on low-lying terrain, with its landscape predominantly characterized by urban areas and historic buildings. However, there are a few notable landmarks and elevated points that provide scenic views of the surrounding areas.

1. Vatican Hill (Collis Vaticanus): Vatican Hill, also known as Collis Vaticanus, is one of the seven hills of Rome and is considered the highest point within Vatican City. It is believed to have been the site of the ancient Etruscan settlement and later became the location of St. Peter's Basilica and the Vatican Gardens. While not a towering mountain, Vatican Hill holds historical and religious significance as the heart of Vatican City.

2. Gianicolo Hill (Janiculum Hill): Although not within the borders of Vatican City, the nearby Gianicolo Hill, also known as Janiculum Hill, offers panoramic views of Rome, including a distant view of Vatican City. It is located just across the Tiber River from Vatican City and is a popular spot for tourists and locals alike to enjoy the breathtaking vistas of the city's skyline.


Rivers and Sea:

Vatican City, as a landlocked city-state, does not have any rivers or access to the sea within its borders. However, it is located in close proximity to the Tiber River and the Tyrrhenian Sea, which significantly influenced the historical and cultural development of the region.


Hospitality and Tourism:

Vatican City, being the smallest independent state in the world, attracts millions of visitors each year who come to explore its rich history, art, and religious significance. The hospitality and tourism industry in Vatican City cater to the needs of these visitors, offering a range of services and experiences.


Top Destinations:

1. St. Peter's Basilica: St. Peter's Basilica is one of the most renowned and impressive basilicas in the world. It is the largest church in Vatican City and serves as an important pilgrimage site for Catholics. The basilica houses exquisite works of art, including Michelangelo's famous sculpture, the Pietà, and offers breathtaking views from its dome.

2. Vatican Museums: The Vatican Museums are a treasure trove of art and history, showcasing an extensive collection of masterpieces from different periods. The museums feature renowned works such as the Sistine Chapel with Michelangelo's iconic ceiling frescoes and the Raphael Rooms with exquisite paintings by Raphael. Visitors can explore the vast galleries and admire artworks spanning centuries.

3. Sistine Chapel: The Sistine Chapel, located within the Vatican Museums, is a must-visit destination. It is renowned for its stunning ceiling frescoes painted by Michelangelo, including the famous depiction of the Creation of Adam. The chapel is a sacred space where papal elections take place and where visitors can marvel at the intricate artwork and religious significance.

4. Vatican Gardens: The Vatican Gardens are a serene oasis within Vatican City. Spanning around 57 acres, these beautifully landscaped gardens offer a peaceful retreat from the bustling city. Visitors can enjoy a leisurely stroll among lush greenery, vibrant flowers, and historic fountains while taking in the tranquility of the surroundings.

5. Vatican Library: The Vatican Library is one of the oldest and most extensive libraries in the world. It houses a vast collection of rare manuscripts, books, and historical documents. Although access to the library is limited, visitors can admire its impressive architecture and learn about its important role in preserving knowledge and culture.


Top Universities:

1. Pontifical Gregorian University: Founded in 1551, the Pontifical Gregorian University is one of the most prestigious pontifical universities in the world. It offers programs in theology, philosophy, canon law, and social sciences. The university attracts students and scholars from various parts of the world and is known for its rigorous academic standards and renowned faculty.

2. Pontifical University of St. Thomas Aquinas (Angelicum): Commonly referred to as the Angelicum, the Pontifical University of St. Thomas Aquinas is dedicated to the study of philosophy and theology. It was founded in 1222 and is recognized for its strong emphasis on Thomistic philosophy and Catholic theology. The university offers a wide range of programs and is highly regarded for its intellectual and spiritual formation.

3. Pontifical University of the Holy Cross: The Pontifical University of the Holy Cross is a pontifical university that specializes in philosophy, theology, and canon law. It was established in 1984 and has gained a reputation for its academic excellence and commitment to promoting Christian values. The university offers undergraduate and postgraduate programs, attracting students from various backgrounds.

4. Pontifical Biblical Institute: The Pontifical Biblical Institute is a renowned institution dedicated to the study of biblical sciences. It was founded in 1909 and focuses on research, teaching, and publication related to the Bible and biblical studies. The institute offers specialized programs in biblical theology and provides a scholarly environment for students and researchers interested in this field.


National Days:

1. Solemnity of Saints Peter and Paul (June 29th): The Solemnity of Saints Peter and Paul is one of the most important national celebrations in Vatican City. It honors the martyrdom of Saints Peter and Paul, who are considered the patron saints of Rome. The day is marked by special religious services, including a Mass celebrated by the Pope, and is attended by pilgrims and visitors from around the world.

2. Feast of the Assumption (August 15th): The Feast of the Assumption is a significant religious observance celebrated in Vatican City and many Catholic countries. It commemorates the belief that the Virgin Mary, at the end of her earthly life, was assumed body and soul into Heaven. The day is marked by religious ceremonies, processions, and the Papal Blessing from St. Peter's Square.

3. Feast of All Saints (November 1st): The Feast of All Saints is a holy day dedicated to honoring all the saints, known and unknown, who have attained heaven. In Vatican City, this day is celebrated with special Masses and prayers. The Pope often delivers a message and gives his blessings to the faithful gathered in St. Peter's Square.

4. Christmas Day (December 25th): Christmas Day is celebrated in Vatican City with great joy and reverence. It commemorates the birth of Jesus Christ and is a time of religious observance and festivity. The Pope presides over the Midnight Mass at St. Peter's Basilica, and his Christmas message is broadcasted globally. The Vatican City is beautifully decorated, and visitors from around the world gather to witness the festivities.


Popular Leaders:

1. Pope Francis: Pope Francis, born Jorge Mario Bergoglio, is the current leader of Vatican City and the head of the Roman Catholic Church. He was elected as the 266th Pope in 2013, becoming the first Pope from the Americas and the first Jesuit Pope. Pope Francis is known for his humble and compassionate approach, advocating for social justice, interfaith dialogue, and environmental protection.

2. Pope Benedict XVI: Pope Benedict XVI, born Joseph Ratzinger, served as the Pope from 2005 to 2013. Prior to his papacy, he had a distinguished career as a theologian and cardinal. Pope Benedict XVI is known for his intellectual depth and theological writings. He made significant efforts to promote ecumenism and foster dialogue between different religious traditions.

3. Pope John Paul II: Pope John Paul II, born Karol Józef Wojtyła, was the Pope from 1978 until his death in 2005. He was one of the longest-serving Popes in history and played a crucial role in world affairs, particularly in promoting peace and human rights. Pope John Paul II made numerous international visits and was known for his charismatic presence and strong moral leadership.

4. Pope John XXIII: Pope John XXIII, born Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli, served as the Pope from 1958 to 1963. He is best known for convening the Second Vatican Council, which brought significant reforms to the Catholic Church and promoted dialogue with other Christian denominations. Pope John XXIII was admired for his warmth, simplicity, and efforts to foster unity and understanding among people of different backgrounds.



Vatican City, despite its small size, has had contributions from notable scientists who have made significant advancements in various fields. Here are some of the scientists associated with Vatican City:

1. Georges Lemaître: Georges Lemaître, a Belgian Catholic priest, and astronomer, was one of the leading scientists of the 20th century. He is best known for his proposal of the Big Bang theory, which revolutionized our understanding of the origin and evolution of the universe. Lemaître's scientific achievements earned him recognition and respect within the scientific community.

2. Gregor Mendel: Although not directly associated with Vatican City, Gregor Mendel, an Augustinian friar and scientist, made groundbreaking contributions to the field of genetics. His experiments with pea plants laid the foundation for the modern understanding of heredity and genetic inheritance. Mendel's work is considered fundamental to the study of genetics and has had a profound impact on the field of biology.


Writers and Poets:

1. St. Thomas Aquinas: St. Thomas Aquinas, an Italian Dominican friar and theologian, is considered one of the greatest Christian philosophers and writers of all time. His works, such as "Summa Theologica," have had a profound influence on Christian thought and philosophy. Aquinas's writings continue to be studied and revered by scholars and theologians worldwide.

2. Pope John Paul II: In addition to his role as the Pope, Pope John Paul II was a prolific writer and poet. He wrote numerous encyclicals, books, and poems, addressing a wide range of topics including spirituality, morality, and the human condition. His writings reflect his deep faith and philosophical insights, and they continue to inspire and guide individuals around the world.