Brief information

General Information

Official Name: Australia
Short Name: AU
Continent: Oceania /Australia


Calling Code: +61
Capital City: Canberra
Domain: .au


Area(Sqre/KM): 7682300 SqKM
Population: About 25499884 as of 2023
Population Density: 3.32
Population By Religion:
No of States: 6


Nationality: Australians
President: Elizabeth II
Prime Minister: Anthony Albanese
Independance Day: 1/26/1788 12:00:00 AM


Currency: Dollar
Latitude: -25.274398
Longitude: 133.775136


Lanugages: English 76.8%, Mandarin 1.6%, Italian 1.4%, Arabic 1.3%, Greek 1.2%, Cantonese 1.2%, Vietnamese 1.1%, other 10.4%, unspecified 5% (2011 est.)
National Language: English

Intesting facts

Here are some interesting facts about Australia:

  1. Australia is the world's sixth-largest country by land area, covering approximately 7.6 million square kilometers.
  2. The Great Barrier Reef, located off the coast of Queensland, is the world's largest coral reef system and is home to a wide variety of marine life.
  3. Australia has over 10,000 beaches, more than any other country in the world.
  4. The Australian Alps receive more snowfall than Switzerland.
  5. The country is home to many unique animals, including kangaroos, wallabies, koalas, wombats, and Tasmanian devils.
  6. Uluru, also known as Ayers Rock, is a large sandstone rock formation located in the Northern Territory and is sacred to the indigenous Anangu people.
  7. The world's longest fence, the Dingo Fence, stretches over 5,000 kilometers across Australia.
  8. The largest cattle station (ranch) in the world is Anna Creek Station in South Australia, which is larger than Israel.
  9. Australia is the only country in the world that covers an entire continent.
  10. The Sydney Opera House is one of the most iconic buildings in the world and is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

About Australia

Australia is a country and continent located in the southern hemisphere, surrounded by the Indian and Pacific oceans. It is the world's sixth-largest country by land area and has a population of approximately 26 million people. The capital city is Canberra, and the largest city is Sydney. Australia is known for its diverse landscape, which includes tropical rainforests, vast deserts, and beautiful beaches. The country is also known for its unique wildlife, including kangaroos, koalas, and wallabies. Australia has a strong economy and is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, and the World Trade Organization.


Australia has several major cities, each with its own unique character and attractions. Some of the top cities in Australia are:

  1. Sydney - the largest and most iconic city in Australia, famous for its Opera House, Harbour Bridge, and beautiful beaches.

  2. Melbourne - the cultural capital of Australia, known for its art, music, and food scene.

  3. Brisbane - a modern, vibrant city with a subtropical climate and a relaxed, outdoor lifestyle.

  4. Perth - located on the west coast, Perth is known for its stunning beaches, parks, and natural attractions.

  5. Adelaide - a charming and elegant city with a rich history, surrounded by vineyards and rolling hills.

  6. Gold Coast - a popular tourist destination with stunning beaches, theme parks, and vibrant nightlife.

  7. Canberra - the capital city of Australia, located in the Australian Capital Territory, famous for its museums, galleries, and landmarks.

  8. Cairns - a gateway to the Great Barrier Reef, with a tropical climate and a laid-back atmosphere.

  9. Hobart - the capital of Tasmania, known for its stunning natural beauty, gourmet food, and historic architecture.

  10. Darwin - a tropical city in the Northern Territory, known for its wildlife, outdoor adventures, and cultural heritage.



Australia has a rich and complex history that dates back over 65,000 years when the Indigenous Australians arrived on the continent. These First Nations people had a deep connection to the land and a rich culture that was passed down through generations through storytelling, dance, and art.

In 1770, the British navigator James Cook arrived in Australia and claimed the land for Britain, leading to the colonization of the continent by the British. This colonization had a devastating impact on the Indigenous Australians, who suffered violence, displacement, and disease.

Throughout the 19th century, the British established colonies across Australia, and in 1901, the Commonwealth of Australia was formed, uniting the colonies as a single nation. Since then, Australia has undergone significant social, cultural, and economic changes, becoming a modern and multicultural society that values diversity and inclusivity.



Australia is the world's smallest continent, but the sixth-largest country by land area. It is located in the southern hemisphere and comprises the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands. The country is surrounded by the Pacific Ocean to the east, the Indian Ocean to the west and south, and the Southern Ocean to the south. The landscape of Australia is diverse and includes arid desert, tropical rainforest, mountain ranges, grasslands, and coastal regions.

The continent is divided into six states and two territories: New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, Western Australia, South Australia, Tasmania, the Australian Capital Territory (ACT), and the Northern Territory (NT). The country is also home to numerous natural wonders, including Uluru (Ayers Rock), the Great Barrier Reef, the Kakadu National Park, and the Blue Mountains.


Environment and Weather:

Australia has a diverse climate due to its size and geographic location. The northern parts of the country, including the tropical regions, experience hot and humid weather, while the southern parts experience cooler temperatures. Australia also has a range of environmental issues, including soil erosion, deforestation, and threats to marine ecosystems.

In terms of weather, Australia experiences a range of conditions throughout the year, with distinct seasons. The summer months are typically hot and dry, with temperatures often exceeding 40°C in some areas, while the winter months are generally mild and wet, with snowfall only occurring in certain regions.

Australia is also known for its extreme weather events, including cyclones, floods, and bushfires. These events can cause significant damage to the environment and infrastructure, as well as posing a threat to human life. The country has a range of measures in place to manage and respond to these events, including early warning systems and emergency services.



As of 2021, the estimated population of Australia is around 25.7 million people. The country is the sixth largest in the world in terms of land area, but its population density is one of the lowest, with an average of only three people per square kilometer. The majority of the population (about 85%) lives in urban areas, particularly along the eastern and southeastern coasts of the country, with the largest cities being Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth, and Adelaide.

Australia is a multicultural country, with a diverse population that includes Indigenous Australians, as well as immigrants from various countries around the world. The Indigenous Australian population is estimated to be around 3% of the total population, and there are also significant communities of people with ancestry from China, India, the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Vietnam, Italy, and Greece, among other countries.


Art and Culture:

Australia has a rich and diverse art and culture scene that has been shaped by its indigenous history, British colonial heritage, and multicultural present. The arts in Australia are supported by a range of organizations, including the Australia Council for the Arts, state-based arts councils, and various funding bodies.

Indigenous Australian art, which includes a wide range of forms such as rock art, bark painting, and contemporary works, is one of the oldest and most distinctive art traditions in the world. The Dreamtime stories that form the basis of Indigenous art are believed to be thousands of years old.

The British influence on Australian culture is evident in its literature, music, and theater. Some of Australia's most famous writers include Banjo Paterson, Henry Lawson, and Patrick White. Australian theater has produced world-renowned actors such as Cate Blanchett, Hugh Jackman, and Nicole Kidman.

Australia is also known for its film industry, with directors such as George Miller and actors such as Russell Crowe and Margot Robbie achieving international success. In addition, Australia has a thriving music scene, with popular genres ranging from rock and pop to hip hop and electronic dance music.

The country's multicultural makeup has led to the development of a rich and diverse cuisine, blending elements of European, Asian, and Indigenous culinary traditions. Some of Australia's most popular foods include meat pies, seafood, barbecue, and Vegemite. The country also produces world-renowned wines and beer.

Art and cultural events are held throughout Australia, including festivals such as the Sydney Festival, Adelaide Fringe, and Melbourne International Comedy Festival. The National Gallery of Australia in Canberra, the Art Gallery of New South Wales in Sydney, and the National Portrait Gallery of Australia in Canberra are among the country's top cultural institutions.



Australia has a strong education system with a literacy rate of almost 100%. Education is compulsory for children between the ages of 6 and 16, and most children attend public schools. However, there are also a number of private schools and alternative education options available.

Australia has a well-developed tertiary education system with many world-class universities, including the University of Melbourne, Australian National University, University of Sydney, and University of Queensland. These universities offer a wide range of undergraduate and graduate programs and are known for their research excellence.

In addition to traditional classroom-based education, Australia also has a strong vocational education and training system that provides practical, job-focused training. This includes apprenticeships and traineeships, which allow individuals to earn while they learn.


Business and Economy:

Australia has a mixed-market economy that is one of the largest and most developed in the world. The country is rich in natural resources, particularly minerals and agricultural products, and has a highly skilled workforce.

The service sector is the largest sector of the Australian economy, accounting for about 70% of GDP and employing about 80% of the workforce. The financial services sector is particularly strong, with Sydney being one of the major financial centers in the Asia-Pacific region.

Australia is also a major exporter of natural resources, including coal, iron ore, gold, and natural gas. The mining sector is a significant contributor to the economy, particularly in Western Australia and Queensland.

The agricultural sector is also important to the Australian economy, particularly in the production of wheat, beef, and wool. The country is a major exporter of agricultural products, particularly to Asia.

Tourism is another important sector, contributing around 3% to GDP and employing around 5% of the workforce. Australia is a popular tourist destination, particularly for visitors from Asia and the Pacific region.



Australia has a thriving agricultural sector and is a significant global exporter of agricultural products. The country has a diverse range of agricultural products, with the main exports being wheat, beef, dairy, and wine.

The agricultural sector in Australia is modern, efficient and highly productive, with advanced technologies used in farming practices. The industry is supported by world-class research and development, which has contributed to the growth and success of the sector.

Some of the key agricultural regions in Australia include the Murray-Darling Basin, which is known for its large-scale irrigation farming, the wheat belt in Western Australia, and the beef cattle regions in Queensland and New South Wales.

In addition to traditional farming practices, Australia is also known for its innovative agricultural techniques, such as precision agriculture and vertical farming, which are helping to increase yields and improve sustainability. Overall, agriculture is an important part of Australia's economy and plays a vital role in providing food security for the country and the world.


Foods and Fruits:

Australia is known for its diverse cuisine, influenced by its multicultural population and unique native ingredients. Some popular Australian foods and fruits include:

  1. Vegemite - A popular spread made from yeast extract and used on toast or sandwiches.

  2. Meat pies - A savory pie filled with minced meat and gravy.

  3. Tim Tams - A chocolate biscuit consisting of two layers of chocolate malted biscuit, separated by a light chocolate cream filling and coated in a thin layer of textured chocolate.

  4. Pavlova - A dessert made of a meringue base topped with whipped cream and fresh fruit.

  5. Lamingtons - A sponge cake coated in chocolate and coconut.

  6. Anzac biscuits - A biscuit made from rolled oats, sugar, flour, coconut, and golden syrup.

  7. Macadamia nuts - A native nut of Australia that is commonly used in desserts or as a snack.

  8. Finger limes - A native fruit that has small, pearl-like juice vesicles that pop in the mouth and have a tangy citrus flavor.

  9. Quandongs - A native fruit with a tart, peach-like flavor.

  10. Davidson plums - A native fruit with a sour taste often used in sauces and jams.



Australia has a well-developed and sophisticated healthcare system that is publicly funded and mostly provided by the government. The country has both public and private healthcare sectors, with public healthcare being available to all citizens and permanent residents through the government-funded Medicare program.

The Australian healthcare system is known for its high quality of care and is ranked as one of the best in the world by the World Health Organization. The country has a comprehensive network of hospitals and medical facilities, including primary care clinics, specialist hospitals, and research institutions.

The healthcare system is funded through a combination of public and private sources, with the majority of funding coming from the government. Private health insurance is also available to those who wish to have access to additional medical services or prefer to have greater control over their healthcare.


Natural Resources:

Australia is a resource-rich country with a diverse range of natural resources. Here are some of the major natural resources found in Australia:

  1. Coal: Australia is the world's largest producer of coal, with most of its coal reserves located in Queensland and New South Wales.

  2. Iron ore: Australia is the world's largest producer of iron ore, with most of its iron ore reserves located in Western Australia.

  3. Gold: Australia is the world's second-largest producer of gold, with most of its gold reserves located in Western Australia.

  4. Natural gas: Australia is one of the world's largest producers of natural gas, with most of its natural gas reserves located in Western Australia and the Northern Territory.

  5. Uranium: Australia has the world's largest known uranium reserves, with most of its uranium deposits located in South Australia.

  6. Copper: Australia is one of the world's largest producers of copper, with most of its copper reserves located in South Australia and Queensland.

  7. Nickel: Australia is one of the world's largest producers of nickel, with most of its nickel reserves located in Western Australia.

  8. Bauxite: Australia is the world's largest producer of bauxite, with most of its bauxite reserves located in Western Australia and Queensland.

  9. Zinc: Australia is one of the world's largest producers of zinc, with most of its zinc reserves located in Western Australia and Queensland.

  10. Lead: Australia is one of the world's largest producers of lead, with most of its lead reserves located in Western Australia and Queensland.


Forest and Biodiversity:

Australia has a unique and diverse array of forests and biodiversity due to its varied geography and climate. Approximately 150 million hectares or 19% of the Australian continent is covered by forests, which are home to numerous plant and animal species, including many that are found nowhere else in the world.

One of the most well-known forests in Australia is the Daintree Rainforest, located in North Queensland. This forest is part of the Wet Tropics of Queensland World Heritage Area and is considered one of the oldest surviving rainforests in the world. The forest is home to numerous rare and endangered species, including the cassowary, a large flightless bird that is important to the local Aboriginal culture.

Another notable forest in Australia is the Tasmanian Wilderness, which is also a World Heritage Area. This forest covers over one million hectares and is home to ancient species such as the Huon Pine, which is one of the longest-lived plants in the world, with some trees estimated to be over 2,000 years old.

Australia is also home to a diverse array of wildlife, including kangaroos, wallabies, koalas, and wombats, among many others. However, many species are threatened by habitat loss, invasive species, and climate change. The Australian government has implemented a number of conservation efforts to protect and preserve Australia's unique biodiversity, including the creation of national parks and wildlife reserves, as well as the establishment of programs to manage invasive species and restore degraded ecosystems.


Mountains and Hills:

Australia is a relatively flat country, with most of its land mass consisting of low-lying terrain. However, there are a number of notable mountain ranges and hills in Australia, including:

  1. The Great Dividing Range: This is the largest mountain range in Australia, stretching more than 3,500 kilometers from northern Queensland to the eastern coast of Victoria. The range is home to several famous peaks, including Mount Kosciuszko, which is the highest peak on the Australian mainland.

  2. The Australian Alps: This range of mountains is located in southeastern Australia and is part of the Great Dividing Range. It includes the Snowy Mountains, which are home to several ski resorts and are a popular destination for winter sports enthusiasts.

  3. The Flinders Ranges: Located in South Australia, the Flinders Ranges are a series of rugged mountains and hills that are home to a number of unique flora and fauna species. The range includes several peaks that rise over 1,000 meters above sea level.

  4. The Grampians: Located in western Victoria, the Grampians are a series of sandstone mountains that are known for their stunning scenery and unique rock formations. The range is home to a number of hiking trails and is a popular destination for outdoor enthusiasts.

  5. The Blue Mountains: Located west of Sydney, the Blue Mountains are a series of sandstone cliffs and plateaus that are known for their dramatic scenery and stunning views. The area is home to several national parks and is a popular destination for hiking and outdoor activities.


Rivers and Sea:

Australia has a diverse range of rivers and seas that play a significant role in the country's economy, environment, and culture.

Some of the major rivers in Australia include the Murray River, which is the longest river in Australia, running for over 2,500 km, and the Darling River, which is the third-longest river and one of the country's most important agricultural areas. The Fitzroy River in Western Australia is also significant for its cultural and environmental importance.

Australia is surrounded by several seas and oceans, including the Indian Ocean to the west, the Pacific Ocean to the east, and the Southern Ocean to the south. The Great Barrier Reef, located off the coast of Queensland, is the largest coral reef system in the world and is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The coastline of Australia is home to numerous beaches, including the famous Bondi Beach in Sydney and Surfers Paradise in the Gold Coast, making it a popular destination for water-based activities such as surfing, swimming, and diving.


Hospitality and Tourism:

Australia is a popular tourist destination that attracts millions of visitors every year. The country is known for its stunning natural landscapes, beautiful beaches, vibrant cities, and unique wildlife. The hospitality and tourism industry is an important part of the Australian economy, contributing to both employment and revenue.

Australia offers a wide range of accommodation options, including luxury resorts, hotels, motels, hostels, and camping sites. The country is known for its world-class restaurants and cafes, serving both traditional and international cuisine. The wine industry is also thriving, with many vineyards and wineries offering wine-tasting tours.

Some of the popular tourist attractions in Australia include the Great Barrier Reef, Uluru (Ayers Rock), the Sydney Opera House, the Great Ocean Road, the Blue Mountains, and the Daintree Rainforest. The country also offers many outdoor activities, such as hiking, surfing, scuba diving, snorkeling, and skiing.

Australia has a well-developed tourism infrastructure, with many tour operators offering a wide range of tours and activities. The country is also known for its friendly and welcoming locals, who are always happy to help visitors and share their knowledge about the country.


Top Destinations:

Australia has many popular tourist destinations. Here are some of the top destinations:

  1. Sydney: Known for its iconic landmarks such as the Sydney Opera House and Harbour Bridge, as well as beautiful beaches and world-class restaurants.

  2. Great Barrier Reef: The world's largest coral reef system, home to thousands of species of marine life, and a popular spot for diving and snorkeling.

  3. Uluru-Kata Tjuta National Park: Home to the iconic Uluru (Ayers Rock) and Kata Tjuta (the Olgas), this park is sacred to the indigenous Anangu people and is an important cultural site.

  4. Melbourne: A cosmopolitan city with a thriving arts and culture scene, known for its laneways, street art, and coffee culture.

  5. Great Ocean Road: A scenic coastal drive that takes visitors past stunning cliffs, beaches, and rock formations such as the Twelve Apostles.

  6. Kakadu National Park: A vast wilderness area in the Northern Territory, home to a rich array of wildlife and ancient rock art.

  7. Fraser Island: The world's largest sand island, with beautiful beaches, freshwater lakes, and rainforests.

  8. Blue Mountains National Park: A popular day trip from Sydney, known for its scenic hiking trails, waterfalls, and wildlife.

  9. Cairns and the Tropical North: The gateway to the Great Barrier Reef and the lush rainforests of Far North Queensland.

  10. Adelaide: A charming city known for its food and wine scene, as well as nearby attractions such as the Barossa Valley wine region and Kangaroo Island.


Top Universities:

Australia is home to several prestigious universities, some of which consistently rank highly in global university rankings. Here are some of the top universities in Australia:

  1. The University of Melbourne: Founded in 1853, it is Australia's second-oldest university and is consistently ranked as one of the top universities in the country.

  2. The Australian National University: Founded in 1946, it is located in Canberra and is the only university created by the Parliament of Australia.

  3. The University of Sydney: Established in 1850, it is Australia's first university and is known for its research-intensive focus.

  4. The University of Queensland: Established in 1909, it is one of the oldest universities in Australia and is located in Brisbane.

  5. The University of New South Wales: Established in 1949, it is located in Sydney and is known for its strong focus on innovation and entrepreneurship.

  6. Monash University: Established in 1958, it is located in Melbourne and is known for its strong research focus and international student body.

  7. The University of Western Australia: Established in 1911, it is located in Perth and is known for its research-intensive focus in fields such as science and engineering.

  8. The University of Adelaide: Established in 1874, it is located in Adelaide and is known for its research excellence in fields such as health sciences and engineering.

  9. The University of Technology Sydney: Established in 1988, it is located in Sydney and is known for its strong focus on practical, career-oriented education.

  10. The University of Wollongong: Established in 1951, it is located in Wollongong and is known for its strong research focus in fields such as engineering, physics, and materials science.


National Days:

Australia has several national days, some of the most important ones include:

  1. Australia Day: Celebrated on January 26th, Australia Day marks the arrival of the first fleet of British ships at Port Jackson, New South Wales, in 1788. It is a day to celebrate Australian culture and heritage.

  2. ANZAC Day: Observed on April 25th, ANZAC Day commemorates the service and sacrifice of Australian and New Zealand military personnel in all wars, conflicts, and peacekeeping operations.

  3. National Sorry Day: Celebrated on May 26th, National Sorry Day is a day to acknowledge and recognize the mistreatment of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples who were forcibly removed from their families.

  4. NAIDOC Week: Celebrated in July, NAIDOC Week celebrates the history, culture, and achievements of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples.

  5. Remembrance Day: Observed on November 11th, Remembrance Day commemorates the end of World War I and honors the sacrifice of Australian military personnel who have died in conflicts.

  6. Boxing Day: Celebrated on December 26th, Boxing Day is a public holiday that is traditionally associated with the start of the post-Christmas shopping season. It is also a day for sporting events, particularly cricket and horse racing.


Popular Leaders:

Australia has had many notable and popular leaders over the years. Here are some of the most well-known:

  1. Sir Robert Menzies - Menzies was the longest-serving Prime Minister in Australian history, serving for a total of 18 years across two terms from 1939-1941 and 1949-1966. He was instrumental in the establishment of the Liberal Party of Australia.

  2. John Curtin - Curtin was the Prime Minister of Australia during World War II, leading the country through some of its darkest hours. His leadership helped to establish a strong sense of national identity in Australia.

  3. Bob Hawke - Hawke was Prime Minister from 1983-1991 and is known for his charismatic personality and popular appeal. He is credited with many significant reforms during his time in office, including the introduction of Medicare and the Australia Card.

  4. Paul Keating - Keating served as Prime Minister from 1991-1996 and is known for his economic reforms, including the introduction of a Goods and Services Tax and the establishment of the Australian Securities and Investments Commission.

  5. Kevin Rudd - Rudd was the first Australian Prime Minister to come from Queensland and served two terms, from 2007-2010 and 2013. He is known for his focus on climate change and his apology to Indigenous Australians for the stolen generation.

  6. Julia Gillard - Gillard was Australia's first female Prime Minister, serving from 2010-2013. She is known for her focus on education and for introducing the National Disability Insurance Scheme.

  7. Malcolm Turnbull - Turnbull was Prime Minister from 2015-2018 and is known for his advocacy for same-sex marriage and his focus on innovation and technology.



Australia has produced numerous notable scientists who have made significant contributions to their fields of study. Here are some examples:

  1. Sir Gustav Nossal: A prominent immunologist who has made major contributions to the understanding of how the immune system works.

  2. Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet: A virologist who won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1960 for his work on acquired immune tolerance.

  3. Sir John Eccles: A neurophysiologist who won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1963 for his work on the synapse.

  4. Elizabeth Blackburn: A molecular biologist who won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2009 for her work on telomeres.

  5. Fiona Wood: A plastic surgeon and researcher who developed a new treatment for burns that has saved many lives.

  6. Barry Marshall: A physician who won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2005 for his discovery of the role of Helicobacter pylori in peptic ulcers.

  7. Michelle Simmons: A physicist who is known for her work on quantum computing.


Writers and Poets:

Australia has a rich literary heritage, with many notable writers and poets. Here are a few examples:

  1. Banjo Paterson - Paterson was a poet, journalist, and author who is best known for his bush ballads, such as "Waltzing Matilda" and "The Man from Snowy River".

  2. Henry Lawson - Lawson was a writer and poet who is known for his stories and poems about life in the Australian bush. Some of his most famous works include "The Drover's Wife" and "The Loaded Dog".

  3. Miles Franklin - Franklin was a writer and feminist who is best known for her novel "My Brilliant Career", which tells the story of a young woman who dreams of becoming a writer.

  4. Patrick White - White was a novelist who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1973. His novels often explore themes of identity and Australia's relationship with Europe.

  5. Judith Wright - Wright was a poet and environmentalist who is known for her poems about the Australian landscape and its wildlife. Some of her most famous works include "The Surfer" and "Woman to Man".