Azerbaijan

Brief information

General Information

Official Name: The Republic of Azerbaijan
Short Name: AZ
Continent: Europe

Codes

Calling Code: +994
ISO3: AZE
Capital City: Baku
Domain: .az

Statistics

Area(Sqre/KM): 82658 SqKM
Population: About 10139177 as of 2024
Population Density: 122.66
Population By Religion:

Politics

Nationality: Azerbaijanis

Travel

Currency: Manat
Latitude: 40.143105
Longitude: 47.576927

Language

Lanugages: Azerbaijani (Azeri) (official) 92.5%, Russian 1.4%, Armenian 1.4%, other 4.7% (2009 est.)

Intesting facts

Here are some interesting facts about Azerbaijan:

  1. Azerbaijan is located in both Europe and Asia and is known as a Eurasian country.
  2. It is the largest country in the Caucasus region and is situated at the crossroads of Western Asia and Eastern Europe.
  3. Azerbaijan has a rich cultural heritage and is known for its traditional music, dance, literature, and art.
  4. The country is home to the world's first oil well, which was drilled in Baku in the mid-19th century.
  5. Azerbaijan is famous for its carpets, which are handmade and often feature intricate designs and patterns.
  6. The country has a diverse landscape that includes mountains, forests, lakes, and deserts.
  7. Azerbaijan is also home to the world's largest lake located below sea level, the Caspian Sea.
  8. The country has nine different climatic zones, which is unusual for a country of its size.
  9. Azerbaijan is home to several ethnic groups, including Azerbaijanis, Lezgins, Talysh, and Avars.
  10. Azerbaijani cuisine is rich and diverse and features a variety of dishes such as kebabs, pilaf, dolma, and baklava.

About Azerbaijan

Azerbaijan is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia, located at the crossroads of Eastern Europe and Western Asia. It shares borders with Russia to the north, Georgia to the northwest, Armenia to the west, Iran to the south, and the Caspian Sea to the east. Azerbaijan gained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991 and has since developed into a modern, democratic, and secular country. The capital city is Baku, which is a major cultural, industrial, and economic center in the region. Azerbaijan is known for its rich culture and history, including ancient civilizations, medieval empires, and a vibrant modern culture.

Cities:

Some of the top cities in Azerbaijan are:

  1. Baku: The capital and largest city of Azerbaijan, located on the coast of the Caspian Sea, known for its rich history, cultural landmarks, and modern architecture.

  2. Ganja: The second-largest city of Azerbaijan, located in the west of the country, known for its history, culture, and beautiful gardens.

  3. Sumgayit: The third-largest city of Azerbaijan, located on the Caspian Sea coast, known for its industrial and economic importance.

  4. Lankaran: A coastal city in southern Azerbaijan, known for its beautiful beaches and nature reserves.

  5. Shaki: A picturesque city in northwestern Azerbaijan, known for its historic landmarks, traditional architecture, and natural beauty.

  6. Nakhchivan: An exclave region of Azerbaijan, located between Armenia and Iran, known for its rich history and cultural heritage.

  7. Mingachevir: A city located in central Azerbaijan, known for its hydroelectric power station and artificial lake.

  8. Sheki: A city in northwestern Azerbaijan, known for its traditional architecture, caravanserais, and local handicrafts.

 

History:

Azerbaijan has a rich and complex history. The territory that now makes up modern-day Azerbaijan has been inhabited by various tribes and peoples for thousands of years. In ancient times, Azerbaijan was a part of the Persian Empire and was later conquered by Alexander the Great. After the fall of the Persian Empire, Azerbaijan was ruled by a number of different empires and states, including the Seljuk Empire, the Mongol Empire, and the Safavid Dynasty of Iran.

In the 19th century, Azerbaijan came under the control of the Russian Empire, and remained a part of the Russian Empire until the 1917 Russian Revolution. After the collapse of the Russian Empire, Azerbaijan briefly declared independence, but was soon occupied by the Red Army and became a part of the Soviet Union. Azerbaijan remained a part of the Soviet Union until its collapse in 1991, at which point it declared independence and became a sovereign state. Since then, Azerbaijan has undergone significant political and economic reforms, and has become an important player on the international stage.

 

Geography:

Azerbaijan is located in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia, bordered by the Caspian Sea to the east, Russia to the north, Georgia to the northwest, Armenia to the west, and Iran to the south. The geography of Azerbaijan is diverse, with high mountains, fertile valleys, and vast plains. The country has nine main rivers, including the Kura, the longest river in the Caucasus region, and the Araz, which forms part of the border with Iran.

Azerbaijan has a rich variety of natural resources, including oil, gas, minerals, and timber. The country is also home to several national parks and protected areas, such as the Gobustan National Park, which features ancient rock art, and the Hirkan National Park, which contains one of the largest areas of natural beech forests in the world.

 

Environment and Weather:

Azerbaijan has a diverse climate due to its geography and location. The eastern part of the country, which is dominated by the Greater Caucasus mountain range, experiences a subarctic climate with cold winters and mild summers. The western part of the country, which is lower in elevation, has a humid subtropical climate with mild winters and hot, humid summers.

Azerbaijan also has a rich natural environment with diverse landscapes, including mountains, forests, deserts, and wetlands. The country has a variety of animal and plant species, some of which are endemic to the region. However, Azerbaijan's environment has been impacted by human activities such as pollution, deforestation, and overgrazing.

 

Population:

Azerbaijan has a population of approximately 10 million people as of 2021. The population of Azerbaijan is diverse, with over 30 ethnic groups, including Azerbaijanis (who make up the majority), Lezgis, Talysh, and Russians. Azerbaijani is the official language, and the majority of the population is Muslim, with a small Christian minority. The population of Azerbaijan has been steadily growing over the past few decades, although there has been a recent trend of emigration due to economic and political factors.

 

Art and Culture:

Azerbaijan has a rich and diverse cultural heritage that reflects its history and unique geographic location at the crossroads of Europe and Asia. The country's art and culture have been influenced by its historical ties with Persia, Turkey, and Russia, as well as its position on the ancient Silk Road.

Azerbaijan is known for its traditional music, which includes a wide variety of folk songs and dances. One of the most popular Azerbaijani instruments is the tar, a long-necked lute with a pear-shaped body. Azerbaijani classical music is also renowned, with famous composers such as Uzeyir Hajibeyli and Muslim Magomayev.

Azerbaijani literature is another important aspect of the country's culture. Classic Azerbaijani literature includes works such as the "Kitabi Dede Gorgud," a collection of ancient epic tales, and the poetry of Nizami Ganjavi, one of the greatest poets of the Islamic Golden Age. Modern Azerbaijani writers such as Elchin and Anar have gained international recognition for their works.

Azerbaijani cuisine is also a significant part of the country's culture, with dishes that are influenced by its history and geography. Traditional Azerbaijani cuisine includes dishes such as dolma (stuffed grape leaves), plov (rice pilaf with meat and vegetables), and kebab (grilled meat skewers). Azerbaijani tea culture is also renowned, with traditional tea houses found throughout the country.

In addition, Azerbaijan is home to a number of museums and cultural institutions, including the Azerbaijan State Museum of Art and the Azerbaijan Carpet Museum. The country also hosts several cultural events and festivals throughout the year, such as the Baku International Jazz Festival and the Azerbaijan International Mugham Festival.

 

Education:

Azerbaijan has a literacy rate of 99.8%, which is one of the highest in the world. The education system in Azerbaijan is free and mandatory for children aged between 6 and 18. Primary education takes four years, followed by five years of secondary education. After that, students can attend higher education institutions, including universities and technical schools. Azerbaijan has several reputable universities, including Baku State University, Azerbaijan State Oil and Industry University, and Azerbaijan Medical University.

In recent years, Azerbaijan has been investing in the development of its education system to meet international standards. The country has been working on reforming its curriculum and introducing new technologies in education to make it more effective and accessible for students. The government also offers scholarships to Azerbaijani students who want to study abroad, as part of its efforts to promote education and international cooperation.

 

Business and Economy:

Azerbaijan has a developing market economy that is heavily dependent on the energy sector, particularly oil and gas production. In recent years, the government has focused on diversifying the economy by investing in other sectors such as agriculture, tourism, and manufacturing.

Azerbaijan is known for its significant oil and gas reserves, which have played a vital role in the country's economic development. The oil and gas sector accounts for around 70% of the country's export earnings and 40% of its GDP. The government has implemented various policies to attract foreign investment to develop the energy sector further.

In recent years, Azerbaijan has also been focused on developing its non-oil sectors, such as agriculture, industry, and tourism. The country has significant agricultural potential due to its fertile land and diverse climate, with products such as cotton, grapes, and pomegranates being major exports. The manufacturing sector is also expanding, with particular focus on petrochemicals, food processing, and machinery production.

Tourism is another important sector in Azerbaijan, with the government investing heavily in infrastructure to attract visitors to the country. The country has a rich cultural heritage, with numerous historical sites and natural attractions, including the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus Mountains. In recent years, Azerbaijan has hosted several international events, including the Eurovision Song Contest and the European Games, which have helped to raise its profile as a tourist destination.

 

Agriculture:

Azerbaijan has a favorable climate for agriculture, with approximately 9.3 million hectares of land available for cultivation. The country's agriculture sector contributes around 6% to the GDP and employs about 30% of the population. The country's agricultural products include cotton, grapes, tobacco, tea, hazelnuts, almonds, and various fruits and vegetables. Azerbaijan has made significant efforts in recent years to develop its agriculture sector, including investments in modern technology, irrigation systems, and the establishment of agricultural parks.

One of the most important crops in Azerbaijan is cotton, and the country is among the top cotton producers in the world. Azerbaijan also has a long tradition of winemaking and produces a range of high-quality wines. In addition, the country is known for its production of pomegranates, with Azerbaijan being the largest exporter of pomegranates in the world.

Livestock farming is also an important part of Azerbaijan's agriculture sector, with cattle, sheep, and goats being raised for meat, dairy products, and wool. Azerbaijan has a rich tradition of animal husbandry and many rural communities still rely on livestock for their livelihoods.

 

Foods and Fruits:

Azerbaijan is known for its rich culinary traditions and diverse cuisine that is influenced by various cultures and ethnic groups. Some of the popular dishes in Azerbaijan include:

  1. Plov: This is a rice dish made with meat (usually lamb or beef), saffron, and other spices.

  2. Dolma: This is a dish made of stuffed grape leaves or vegetables, usually with a filling of ground meat, rice, and herbs.

  3. Kebab: This is a meat dish made with skewered and grilled meat, usually lamb or beef.

  4. Lavangi: This is a chicken dish that is stuffed with nuts, fruit, and herbs and cooked in a clay oven.

  5. Qutab: This is a type of flatbread that is stuffed with various fillings, such as minced meat, herbs, or cheese.

Azerbaijan is also known for its fruits, particularly pomegranates and figs. Other fruits grown in Azerbaijan include apples, grapes, apricots, cherries, and peaches. These fruits are often used in traditional Azerbaijani desserts, such as pakhlava (a sweet pastry made with layers of phyllo dough and honey or syrup) and shekerbura (a sweet pastry filled with ground nuts and sugar).

 

Health:

The health sector in Azerbaijan has been improving in recent years, with significant investments made to improve the quality and accessibility of healthcare services. The country has a state-funded healthcare system, which provides free or low-cost medical care to citizens, and a private healthcare sector that serves those who can afford it.

In recent years, Azerbaijan has made significant progress in reducing the incidence of infectious diseases such as tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS, and in improving maternal and child health. The country has also made strides in improving the availability of medical equipment and facilities, and in training and retaining healthcare professionals.

Despite these improvements, challenges remain, particularly in rural areas where access to healthcare services is limited. The government has implemented a number of initiatives to address this, including the development of mobile medical clinics and the expansion of telemedicine services.

 

Natural Resources:

Azerbaijan is known for its rich natural resources, which have been an essential driver of its economy. Here are some of the natural resources found in Azerbaijan:

  1. Oil and Gas: Azerbaijan is known for its vast oil and gas reserves, making it one of the major oil producers in the world. The country has been producing oil for more than a century and continues to be a significant player in the global energy market.

  2. Minerals: Azerbaijan is rich in minerals, including iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, and gold. The country has significant deposits of mineral resources, and mining plays a significant role in its economy.

  3. Water Resources: Azerbaijan has many rivers, lakes, and water resources, making it a significant source of water for irrigation, hydroelectric power, and drinking water.

  4. Agricultural Land: Azerbaijan has significant arable land, which is essential for agriculture. The country is known for the production of crops such as cotton, tobacco, grapes, and vegetables.

  5. Biodiversity: Azerbaijan has a diverse ecosystem, which includes a variety of plant and animal species. The country has several protected areas, including national parks and nature reserves, to preserve its biodiversity.

  6. Tourism: Azerbaijan's natural resources also attract tourists. The country has many natural attractions, including mountains, lakes, and national parks, which make it a popular destination for eco-tourism. Additionally, Azerbaijan has many mineral springs, which are believed to have therapeutic properties.

 

Forest and Biodiversity:

Azerbaijan's natural landscape is diverse, including the Caucasus Mountains in the north, the Caspian Sea in the east, and the semi-deserts of the central and eastern parts of the country. The country has a relatively low forest cover, with only about 11 percent of the total land area classified as forested. The main tree species found in the forests of Azerbaijan are oak, hornbeam, beech, and pine. The country is also home to a variety of wildlife, including bears, wolves, lynx, deer, and wild boar.

Biodiversity conservation in Azerbaijan is overseen by the Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources, which is responsible for developing and implementing national policies and programs for the conservation of flora and fauna. The country has established a number of protected areas, including national parks, nature reserves, and sanctuaries, to preserve its natural heritage. The Shahdag National Park in the north of the country is one of the largest and most important protected areas, covering an area of over 115,000 hectares and containing a range of ecosystems and habitats.

 

Mountains and Hills:

Azerbaijan is a country situated in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia. The country is bordered by Russia, Georgia, Armenia, Turkey, and Iran. Azerbaijan is known for its rich natural beauty, with many mountains and hills that offer stunning views and recreational opportunities.

Some of the prominent mountains and hills in Azerbaijan include:

  1. Bazarduzu - The highest peak in Azerbaijan, located on the border with Russia.

  2. Shahdagh - Located in the Greater Caucasus range, Shahdagh is a popular ski resort.

  3. Babadağ - Located in the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic, Babadağ offers spectacular views of the surrounding landscape.

  4. Tufan Dağı - Another peak located in the Greater Caucasus range, Tufan Dağı is popular for hiking and mountaineering.

  5. Gobustan - A hill located in the Gobustan National Park, famous for its prehistoric rock carvings.

  6. Kapaz - A peak located in the Lesser Caucasus range, known for its beautiful forests and hiking trails.

These mountains and hills offer a variety of outdoor activities such as hiking, skiing, and mountain climbing. They are also home to many unique plant and animal species, making them an important part of Azerbaijan's biodiversity.

 

Rivers and Sea:

Azerbaijan is located in the Caucasus region and has a varied topography with numerous rivers and a portion of the Caspian Sea coast. Some of the major rivers in Azerbaijan include:

  1. Kura River: The Kura River is the longest river in Azerbaijan, stretching for 1,515 km. It originates in Turkey and flows through Georgia and Azerbaijan before emptying into the Caspian Sea.

  2. Caspian Sea: The Caspian Sea is the largest inland body of water in the world and it is bordered by Azerbaijan to the east. It is an important source of fish and caviar for Azerbaijan.

  3. Aras River: The Aras River forms the border between Azerbaijan and Iran. It is 1,072 km long and is a major source of irrigation for agriculture in the region.

  4. Samur River: The Samur River forms the border between Azerbaijan and Russia. It is 216 km long and is home to a variety of fish species.

  5. Goygol Lake: Goygol Lake is a large freshwater lake located in western Azerbaijan. It is surrounded by mountains and is a popular destination for tourists.

 

Hospitality and Tourism:

Tourism is one of the growing sectors in Azerbaijan, with many attractions for visitors to explore. The capital city Baku is the main tourist destination, with its mix of modern and historic architecture, including the Old City, a UNESCO World Heritage site. Other popular destinations include the Absheron Peninsula with its beaches, the ancient city of Shamakhi, and the picturesque town of Gabala in the north. Azerbaijan is also home to nine national parks, including the Gobustan National Park, famous for its rock art, and the Shahdag National Park, which offers skiing and other winter sports. The country has a variety of natural wonders, including the mud volcanoes of Gobustan and the Caspian Sea, which provides opportunities for fishing, boating, and other water sports. The country also hosts several major sporting events, including the Azerbaijan Grand Prix Formula 1 race in Baku. The hospitality industry is growing rapidly in Azerbaijan, with many new hotels and resorts being built to cater to the increasing number of visitors.

 

Top Destinations:

Azerbaijan is a country located in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia, and it has a rich history and culture. Here are some of the top destinations in Azerbaijan:

  1. Baku: The capital city of Azerbaijan, Baku, is a mix of modern and ancient architecture. The old town of Baku is a UNESCO World Heritage Site with narrow streets and alleyways, traditional houses, and palaces. The city is also home to modern landmarks such as the Flame Towers and the Heydar Aliyev Center.

  2. Gabala: Gabala is a mountain resort town located in the northwest of Azerbaijan. It is known for its picturesque landscapes, fresh air, and outdoor activities such as hiking, skiing, and horse riding. Gabala is also home to the Tufandag Ski Resort, which offers skiing and snowboarding opportunities.

  3. Sheki: Sheki is a historic city located in the northwest of Azerbaijan, known for its traditional architecture, including the Sheki Khan's Palace, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The city is also famous for its handicrafts, including silk production, copperware, and pottery.

  4. Gobustan: Gobustan is a national park located south of Baku, known for its rock art and mud volcanoes. The park is home to thousands of petroglyphs (rock carvings) dating back to the Stone Age.

  5. Quba: Quba is a city located in the northeast of Azerbaijan, known for its picturesque landscapes, including the Shahdag National Park. The city is also home to the largest Jewish community in Azerbaijan and has several synagogues and Jewish cultural landmarks.

  6. Lankaran: Lankaran is a coastal city located in the south of Azerbaijan, known for its sandy beaches, hot springs, and subtropical climate. The city is also home to the Hirkan National Park, which is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and one of the last remaining virgin forests in the world.

 

Top Universities:

Azerbaijan has made significant strides in its education system over the past few decades. Some of the top universities in Azerbaijan are:

  1. Baku State University: Established in 1919, Baku State University is the oldest and largest university in Azerbaijan. It is a research-intensive institution offering degrees in a wide range of fields including law, economics, medicine, and engineering.

  2. Azerbaijan State Oil and Industry University: Founded in 1920, Azerbaijan State Oil and Industry University is one of the leading universities in the country in the field of oil and gas. The university offers a range of programs in oil engineering, chemical engineering, and geology.

  3. Khazar University: Established in 1991, Khazar University is a private university located in Baku. It is one of the top-ranked universities in the country, offering a range of undergraduate and graduate programs in various fields such as business, law, and social sciences.

  4. ADA University: ADA University is a state-funded university in Baku that specializes in offering degree programs in public policy, international relations, and diplomacy.

  5. Nakhchivan State University: Founded in 1999, Nakhchivan State University is a young but rapidly developing university located in the city of Nakhchivan. It offers degree programs in a variety of fields, including history, linguistics, and engineering.

 

National Days:

Azerbaijan celebrates several national days throughout the year, some of which include:

  1. New Year's Day (January 1st): Celebrated nationwide as the beginning of the new year.

  2. International Women's Day (March 8th): Celebrated as a public holiday to honor the social, economic, cultural, and political achievements of women.

  3. Novruz Bayrami (March 20th-21st): Celebrated as the traditional Azerbaijani holiday marking the beginning of the New Year and the coming of spring.

  4. National Salvation Day (June 15th): Celebrated to commemorate the day when Heydar Aliyev returned to power in 1993 and helped end the civil war in Azerbaijan.

  5. National Flag Day (November 9th): Celebrated to honor the national flag of Azerbaijan, which was adopted on November 9th, 1918.

  6. Constitution Day (November 12th): Celebrated to commemorate the day the current Constitution of Azerbaijan was adopted in 1995.

  7. Independence Day (October 18th): Celebrated to commemorate the country's declaration of independence from the Soviet Union in 1991.

 

Popular Leaders:

Here are some of the popular leaders of Azerbaijan:

  1. Heydar Aliyev: Heydar Aliyev served as the President of Azerbaijan from 1993 until his resignation in 2003. He played a significant role in Azerbaijan's history, particularly during the Nagorno-Karabakh War with Armenia.

  2. Ilham Aliyev: Ilham Aliyev is the current President of Azerbaijan, serving since 2003. He succeeded his father, Heydar Aliyev, and has worked to continue Azerbaijan's economic development and strengthen its international relations.

  3. Abulfaz Elchibey: Abulfaz Elchibey was the first democratically elected President of Azerbaijan, serving from 1992 to 1993. He played a critical role in Azerbaijan's independence movement and advocated for democratic reforms.

  4. Isa Gambar: Isa Gambar is a prominent opposition leader in Azerbaijan and was a presidential candidate in 2003. He has been a vocal advocate for democracy, human rights, and political reform in Azerbaijan.

  5. Leyla Aliyeva: Leyla Aliyeva is the Vice President of the Heydar Aliyev Foundation, a charitable organization in Azerbaijan that works to support education, culture, and healthcare. She is also known for her work as an artist and has exhibited her paintings internationally.

  6. Elmar Mammadyarov: Elmar Mammadyarov is a former Minister of Foreign Affairs of Azerbaijan, serving from 2004 to 2020. He played a critical role in Azerbaijan's foreign policy and helped to strengthen its relationships with other countries.

  7. Bakhtiyar Vahabzadeh: Bakhtiyar Vahabzadeh was a prominent Azerbaijani poet and playwright, known for his contributions to Azerbaijani literature and culture. He was also a member of the Azerbaijani parliament and an advocate for political and social reform.

 

Scientists:

Azerbaijan has a rich history of science and technology, with many notable scientists and inventors contributing to various fields of study. Here are a few examples:

  1. Lotfi A. Zadeh: Born in Baku, Azerbaijan in 1921, Lotfi A. Zadeh was a mathematician and computer scientist who is best known for developing fuzzy logic. He also made significant contributions to the field of artificial intelligence.

  2. Mirza Fatali Akhundov: Also known as M.F. Akhundzadeh, he was a prominent Azerbaijani playwright, philosopher, and writer during the 19th century. In addition to his literary contributions, Akhundov was a respected figure in the scientific community, having published papers on topics such as the chemical composition of oil and the use of telescopes.

  3. Yusif Mammadaliyev: A prominent Azerbaijani geologist, Yusif Mammadaliyev is known for his work on the geological structure of the South Caspian Basin. He was also a member of the Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences.

  4. Rustam Abdullaev: Born in Baku in 1945, Rustam Abdullaev is a physicist who made significant contributions to the study of superconductivity. He has received numerous awards and honors for his work, including the State Prize of Azerbaijan and the Order of Honor of the Russian Federation.

  5. Lev Landau: Though not Azerbaijani himself, Lev Landau spent many years working at the Institute of Physics in Baku and is considered one of the most important physicists of the 20th century. He made contributions to many areas of physics, including condensed matter physics, particle physics, and astrophysics.

 

Writers and Poets:

Azerbaijan has a rich literary history, with a number of notable writers and poets. Here are some of the most famous:

  1. Nizami Ganjavi: A 12th-century Persian-language poet who is considered one of the greatest romantic epic poets in Persian literature. He is best known for his works "Layla and Majnun," "Khosrow and Shirin," and "Seven Beauties."

  2. Fuzuli: A 16th-century Azerbaijani poet who wrote in both Azerbaijani and Persian. He is known for his romantic and mystical poetry, including his most famous work, "Leyli and Majnun," which tells the tragic story of two lovers.

  3. Mirza Alakbar Sabir: A 20th-century satirical poet who is known for his humorous and critical works that comment on social and political issues of the time. His most famous work is "The Tales of the Topoq," a collection of satirical stories that critique traditional Azerbaijani society.

  4. Samad Vurgun: A 20th-century poet who is considered one of the greatest Azerbaijani poets of the Soviet era. He wrote about a wide range of topics, including love, nature, and patriotism.

  5. Anar: A contemporary Azerbaijani novelist and short-story writer who is known for his experimental and avant-garde writing style. He has won numerous literary awards, including the Russian Booker Prize.